What are the 20 examples of acids

What is an acid?

In this text we explain to you what you can understand by the term acid, how acids are formed and what properties they have.

What acids are there?

You have probably come across many different acids in your life. In everyday life you can find them in products such as vinegar (acetic acid), milk (lactic acid), in many fruits or as an acidulant in many drinks, for example in the form of ascorbic acid. You can also find some acids far away from food. 20% sulfuric acid can be found in the battery of cars, as well as hydrochloric acid (0.5% to 1%) and in your stomach, formic acid, for example, is found in nature in nettles and of course in the eponymous insects. In chemistry, these substances are viewed separately from their occurrence in nature. Let's look at the properties of acids.

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What are the properties of acids?

As the name suggests, acids are substances that are acidic to a certain degree. The exact degree of acidity is determined using the pH value. The lower the pH, the higher the acid concentration. The pH value 7 means that the chemical compound that is present is neutral, while the pH value 0 means that it is a very acidic substance. I have summarized this for you in the following graphic.

pH value of various substances

I would now like to tell you about other properties of acids. Acids are able to attack organic substances (textiles, skin, eyes) and base metals (base metals are more reactive than noble metals). There are also gradations in the strength of the acids. A strong acid is, for example, hydrochloric acid (pH value = 0), which strongly attacks substances, whereas a weak acid is carbonic acid (pH value = 4). This hardly reacts with other substances.

Acids in water

Acids are often used in aqueous solutions. These are known as acidic solutions. An example of such a solution is hydrochloric acid, which is formed when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water. Sour solutions have a typical sour taste. In addition, acidic solutions conduct electricity. That is because the constituents of the acid ionized are. I would like to show you this using the example of hydrogen chloride dissolved in water.

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$ HCl \ rightarrow H ^ + + Cl ^ - $

$ Hydrogen chloride gas \ rightarrow hydrogen ion + chloride ion $

In this equation you can see that this acid, which is dissolved in water, is a positively charged oneHydrogen ion ($ H ^ + $) from Acid molecule ($ HCl $) and the negatively chargedAcid residue ion($ Cl ^ - $) leaves. Through this so-called ionization (or dissociation), acidic solutions are able to conduct electricity.

As you can see in this example, acids don't always come in liquid form. For example, hydrogen chloride is gaseous. Citric acid would be an example of an acid that is present as a solid.

Now you know everything there is to know about Acids and their properties. You can now share your knowledge with ours Exercises testing. We wish you a lot of fun and success!

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Which pH value can be assigned to a very strong acid?

Tick ​​the correct statements regarding the reaction of acids with other substances.

(There can be more than one answer)

Why are acidic solutions able to conduct electricity?

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