Is bipolar a personality disorder of Cluster B.

Categories, clusters and frequency

Personality traits as a disruptive burden (page 3/16)

Categorization according to ICD-10 and DSM

In the two best-known classification systems for mental illnesses, the "International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems" (ICD-10) and the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM), personality disorders are divided into similar categories. The criteria for the individual disorders are also often similar.

In the following, the classification of personality disorders in the DSM will first be discussed, then the differences in the ICD-10 will be described.

Division of personality disorders into clusters

In both classification systems, personality disorders are divided into three clusters: Cluster A denotes personality disorders with “strange and eccentric behaviors”, Cluster B personality disorders with “dramatic, emotional and moody behavior” and Cluster C personality disorders with “fearful and avoidant behavior”.

Cluster A includes paranoid, schizoid and schizotypic personality disorder, cluster B includes antisocial, borderline, histrionic and narcissistic personality disorder, and cluster C includes insecure, dependent and compulsive personality disorder. The passive-aggressive personality disorder occupies a special position: this diagnosis has so far been controversial and is rarely made. It does not appear in the DSM, in the ICD-10 it is listed under “other personality disorders”, but not characterized in detail.

Frequency of personality disorders

It is difficult to pinpoint the frequency of personality disorders. Most people do not start treatment on their own, and in many cases the disorder is not recognized at all. That is why there are relatively few studies on this topic. It is estimated, however, that five to ten percent of the population will develop a personality disorder in their lifetime. Some personality disorders are more common in men, others more common in women, and some are equally common in men and women.

However, personality disorders are observed much more frequently in patients suffering from psychiatric illnesses, namely in 30 to 50 percent. They are most commonly affected by borderline personality disorder, followed by insecure, histrionic, and dependent personality disorder.

Conversely, people with a personality disorder often suffer from other mental health problems and illnesses - as well as other personality disorders. Alcohol abuse occurs in around 16 percent and drug abuse in five percent. Anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders and psychosomatic illnesses are also frequently observed.