What are KCL and KVL
The Kirchhoff current and voltage law defined by Gustav Kirchhoff describes the relationship between the values of currents flowing through a connection point and the voltages in a circuit loop in a circuit.
Kirchhoff's current law (KCL)
This is Kirchhoff's first law.
The sum of all currents entering a circuit junction is 0. The currents entering the junction have a positive sign and the currents leaving the junction have a negative sign:
Another way to look at this law is that the sum of the currents entering a transition is equal to the sum of the currents exiting the transition:
I. 1 and I. 2 enter the intersection
I. 3 leave the intersection
I. 1 = 2A, I. 2 = 3A, I. 3 = -1A, I. 4 =?
∑ I. k = I. 1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4 = 0
I. 4 = -I 1 - I. 2 - I. 3 = -2A - 3A - (-1A) = -4A
There I. 4 is negative, it leaves the intersection.
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL)
This is Kirchhoff's second law.
The sum of all voltages or potential differences in a current loop is 0.
V. S. = 12 V, V. R1 = -4 V, V. R2 = -3V
V. R3 =?
∑ V. k = V. S. + V. R1 + V. R2 + V. R3 = 0
V. R3 = - V. S. - V. R1 - V. R2 = -12 V. + 4 V. + 3 V. = -5 V.
The voltage sign (+/-) is the direction of the potential difference.
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