How long does a social norm last?

Values ​​and norms: What connects individuals in their society and determines their actions

Introduction to Sociology pp 11-56 | Cite as

  • Heinz Abels
First Online:
Part of the Study Texts on Sociology book series (STSO)


Arthur Miller writes about the traveling salesman Willy Loman: “He actually has values. Only the fact that these values ​​cannot be realized is what drives him to despair, like so many other people unfortunately. Only those who really live without all values ​​and ideals feel perfectly comfortable everywhere and at all times, because no conflict is possible between anything and anything. "

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Bell, Daniel (1973): The Post-Industrial Society. Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 1985Google Scholar
  2. Berger, Peter L; Berger, Brigitte; Kellner, Hansfried (1973): The discomfort in modernity. Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 1975Google Scholar
  3. Berger, Peter L .; Luckmann, Thomas (1966): The social construction of reality. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 20th edition 2004Google Scholar
  4. Claessens, Dieter (1972): Family and Value System. A study on the “second, socio-cultural birth” of humans and the resilience of the “nuclear family”. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 3rd, revised and expanded edition Google Scholar
  5. Dahrendorf, Ralf (1989): Introduction to Sociology. In: Social World '89. About sociology. Anniversary issue for the 40th year. Göttingen: SchwartzGoogle Scholar
  6. Deutsche Shell (Ed.) (2002): Jugend 2002. Between pragmatic idealism and robust materialism. 14. Shell Youth Study. Frankfurt am Main: FischerGoogle Scholar
  7. Deutsche Shell (Ed.) (2015): Jugend 2015. A pragmatic generation on the move. 17. Shell Youth Study. Frankfurt am Main: FischerGoogle Scholar
  8. Dreitzel, Hans Peter (1968): The social suffering and the suffering in society. Preliminary studies on a pathology of role behavior. Stuttgart: EnkeGoogle Scholar
  9. Durkheim, Émile (1893): About the social division of labor. Study of the organization of higher societies. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, ​​1992Google Scholar
  10. Durkheim, Émile (1895): The rules of the sociological method. Neuwied: Luchterhand, 4th, revised edition, 1976Google Scholar
  11. Durkheim, Émile (1897): The suicide. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, ​​3rd edition, 1990Google Scholar
  12. Gensicke, Thomas (2002): Individuality and Security in a New Synthesis? Value orientations and social activity. In: Deutsche Shell (Ed.) (2002): Jugend 2002Google Scholar
  13. Gensicke, Thomas (2015): The Value Orientations of Young People (2002 - 2015). In: Deutsche Shell (Ed.) (2015): Jugend 2015Google Scholar
  14. Inglehart, Ronald (1971): The silent revolution in Europe: Intergenerational change in postindustrial societies. In: American Political Science Review, 65Google Scholar
  15. Inglehart, Ronald (1976): Values, levels of conceptualization and protest potential among western publics. (Paper. International Political Science Congress, Edinburgh) Google Scholar
  16. Inglehart, Ronald (1977): The silent revolution: Changing values ​​and political styles among western publics. Princeton: Princeton University PressGoogle Scholar
  17. Inglehart, Ronald (1980): Relationship between socio-economic conditions and individual value priorities. In: Cologne journal for sociology and social psychology, 32nd year Google Scholar
  18. Inglehart, Ronald (1989): Cultural Upheaval. Change in values ​​in the western world. Frankfurt am Main: CampusGoogle Scholar
  19. Inglehart, Ronald (1997): Modernization and Post-Modernization. Cultural, economic and political change in 43 societies. Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 1998Google Scholar
  20. Joas, Hans (1997): The emergence of values. Frankfurt am Main: SuhrkampGoogle Scholar
  21. Klages, Helmut (1984): Value Orientations in Change. Review, analysis of the present, forecasts. Frankfurt am Main: CampusGoogle Scholar
  22. Klages, Helmut (1985): Education and Value Change. In: Lutz (Ed.) (1985): Sociology and social development. Negotiations of the 22nd German Sociological Congress. Frankfurt am Main: CampusGoogle Scholar
  23. Klages, Helmut (1998a): Changing Values ​​and Morality. In: Lüschen (Ed.) (1998): The moral in sociology. Opladen: Westdeutscher VerlagCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Klages, Helmut (1998b): Values ​​and Value Change. In: Schäfers and Zapf (Hrsg.) (1998): Concise dictionary of German society. Opladen: Leske + BudrichGoogle Scholar
  25. Klein, Markus; Ohr, Dieter (2004): Is the change in values ​​changing its direction? In: Schmitt-Beck et al. (Ed.) (2004): Social and political change in Germany. Analyzes with ALLBUS data from two decades. Wiesbaden: VSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klingemann, Hans-Dieter (1998): Foreword. In: Inglehart (1997) Google Scholar
  27. Kluckhohn, Clyde (1951): Values ​​and value-orientations in the theory of action. An exploration in definition and classification. In: Parsons and Shils (eds.) (1951): Toward a general theory of action. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1962Google Scholar
  28. König, René (1969): Social norms. In: Bernsdorf (Ed.) (1969): Dictionary of Sociology. Stuttgart: Enke, 2nd, revised and expanded editionGoogle Scholar
  29. Luhmann, Niklas (1992): Division of Labor and Morality. Durkheim's theory. In: Durkheim (1893) Google Scholar
  30. Maslow, Abraham H. (1954): Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & RowGoogle Scholar
  31. Mead, George Herbert (1913): The social identity. In: Mead (1980): Collected essays, Vol. 1. Ed. By Hans Joas. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp (orig. The social self. In: The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, Vol. X. New York: The Science Press) Google Scholar
  32. Mead, George Herbert (1918): The psychology of punitive justice. In: Parsons et al. (eds.) (1961): Theories of society. Foundations of modern sociological theory. New York: The Free Press, One volume edition 1965Google Scholar
  33. Mead, George Herbert (1934): Spirit, Identity and Society. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, ​​1973Google Scholar
  34. Morris, Charles W. (1934): Introduction: George H. Mead as a social psychologist and social philosopher. In: Mead (1934) Google Scholar
  35. Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud (1984): Norms. In: Kerber and Schmieder (eds.) (1984): Handbuch Soziologie. On the theory and practice of social relationships. Reinbek: Rowohlt, 1991Google Scholar
  36. Parsons, Talcott (1945): Systematic Theory in Sociology. Current status and outlook. In: Parsons (1964): Contributions to sociological theory. Edited by Dietrich Rüschemeyer. Neuwied: LuchterhandGoogle Scholar
  37. Parsons, Talcott (1951): The social system. New York: Free Press, 1964Google Scholar
  38. Parsons, Talcott (1958c): Authority, legitimation, and political action. In: Parsons (1960): Structure and process in modern societies. New York: The Free PressGoogle Scholar
  39. Parsons, Talcott (1958d): Durkheim's contribution to the theory of the integration of social systems. In: Berliner Journal für Soziologie, 1993, Issue 4Google Scholar
  40. Popitz, Heinrich (1968): About the preventive effect of ignorance. Dark figure, norm and punishment. Tübingen: MohrGoogle Scholar
  41. Popitz, Heinrich (1980): The normative construction of society. Tübingen: MohrGoogle Scholar
  42. Riesman, David (1950): The lonely crowd. Reinbek: Rowohlt, 1958Google Scholar
  43. Riesman, David (1958): Leisure and Work in Post-Industrial Society. In: Riesman (1964): Prosperity for what? Essays. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, ​​1973Google Scholar
  44. Schneider, Wolfgang Ludwig (2002): Basics of the sociological theory. Volume 1: Weber, Parsons, Mead, Schütz. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher VerlagGoogle Scholar
  45. Simmel, Georg (1890): About social differentiation. In: Simmel (1989 ff.), Volume 2 Google Scholar
  46. Simmel, Georg (1894): The problem of sociology. In: Simmel (1989 ff.), Volume 5 Google Scholar
  47. Simmel, Georg (1900): Philosophy of Money (Simmel 1989 ff., Volume 6) Google Scholar
  48. Simmel, Georg (1908): Sociology. Studies on the forms of socialization. (Simmel 1989 ff., Volume 11) Google Scholar
  49. Simmel, Georg (1989 ff.): Georg Simmel Complete Edition. Edited by Otthein Rammstedt. Frankfurt am Main: SuhrkampGoogle Scholar
  50. Weber, Max (1904): The "objectivity" of sociological and sociopolitical knowledge. In: Weber (2002) Google Scholar
  51. Weber, Max (1905): Protestant ethics and the “spirit” of capitalism. In: Weber (2002) Google Scholar
  52. Weber, Max (2002): Schriften 1894 - 1922. Selected by Dirk Kaesler. Stuttgart: KrönerGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1. Institute for Sociology Remote University in Hagen-Hagen, Germany