When was Kumari Kandam destroyed
Why is the story of the Dravidians ignored? [closed]
Different views are expressed in the world of research on Indus Valley Civilization. Some say it is from the Aryans while others think it is from the Dravids.
Based on the four Vedas, it was theorized that the Indus Valley civilization came from the Aryans. Hence the analysis of the Vedas throws much light on this line.
If the Indus Valley Civilization was from the Aryans, then the worship of the mother goddess, who played an important role in the Indus Valley Civilization, should be described in the Vedas. However, only minor female deities are mentioned in the Vedas. The Indus Valley deities usually have horns while the Vedic deities are not represented with horns.1 Sivalinkas found in the Indus Valley civilization are later demoted in the Vedas.
The Vedas describe the wheels of the chariots with spokes, but the wheels that can be seen on the seals and vehicles made of clay in the Indus Valley do not have wheels with spokes. 2
After Sir John Marshall's analysis of the Indus Valley Civilization, here are some pointers.
- "The image of Indo-Aryan society presented in the Vedas is that of a partly pastoral, partly agricultural people who have not yet emerged from the village state and have no knowledge of life in cities or of the complex economic organization that such a life implies , and their houses are nondescript affairs, mostly built of bamboo.
In Mohenjodaro and Harappa, on the other hand, we have densely populated cities with solid, spacious brick houses with adequate sanitary facilities, bathrooms, fountains, and other amenities.
- The metals that the Indo-Aryans used in the Rigveda period are gold and copper or bronze; but somewhat later, in the time of Yajurveda and Atharvaveda, these metals are supplemented by silver and iron.
Silver is more common than gold among the Indus, and utensils and vessels are sometimes made of stone - a relic of the Neolithic Age - as well as copper and bronze. There are no traces of iron.
- For offensive weapons, the Vedic Aryans have bows and arrows, spears, daggers and ax, and for defensive tanks helmets and tanks.
The Indus also have bow and arrow, spear, dagger and ax, but like the Mesopotamians and Egyptians they also have the mace, sometimes made of stone, sometimes of metal; On the other hand, defense armor is completely unknown to them - a fact that they must have betrayed in every competition with postal and helmet enemies.
- The Vedic Aryans are a nation of meat-eaters who apparently had a general dislike for fish, as fishing is not directly mentioned in the Vedas.
Fish is a common food component of the Indus people, as are mollusks, turtles and other aquatic life.
- The horse plays an important role in the life of the Vedic Aryans, as well as in the life of many nations from the northern grasslands.
The horse seems to have been unknown to the people of Mohenjodaro and Harappa
- The Vedic Aryans valued the cow above all other animals and viewed it with special reverence.
The cow does not play a special role among the Indus, as its place is taken by the bull, whose popularity is confirmed by the numerous figures and other representations of this animal.
- The Vedas do not talk about the tiger and little about the elephant.
Both animals are known to the Indus.
- In the Vedic pantheon the female element is almost completely subordinate to the male .......
Among the Indus cults, the feminine elements seem to be alike, if not to dominate the masculine.
Over time, many other important differences will undoubtedly be revealed, but for now the above will be enough to show how wide the gap is between the Indus and Vedic civilizations. Now it can perhaps be argued that the difference between them is only a difference in time; that the Vedic civilization was either the forerunner or the direct descendant of the Indus civilization ........ Let us first assume that the Vedic civilization preceded an ascent to the Indus civilization. On this hypothesis, the progress from village to city-state and from the inconspicuous houses of the Vedic period to the massive brick architecture of Mohenjodaro and Harappa would find a logical explanation, although we would have to postulate a long time interval to explain the development. But what about other cultural traits?
If Vedic culture preceded the Indus, how is it that iron and defensive armor and the horse characteristic of the former are unknown to the latter? Or how is it that the bull replaces the cow as an object of worship in the Indus period, only to be ousted by the cow again in the following ages? Or how is it that the Indus culture betrays so many survivors of the Neolithic age - in the form of stone tools and vessels - when the Coper or bronze and iron culture of the Indo-Aryans intervened between the two? These considerations have clearly made out of court any solution to the problem that postulates an earlier date for the Vedas than for the Indus civilization. But if it wasn't earlier, are there reasons to believe that it emerged from the latter? In other words, could the Indo-Aryans have been the originators of the Indus as well as the Vedic civilization?
Here, too, we face a similar dilemma. Because although under this assumption we could explain such phenomena as the introduction of iron, horse and body protection, all of which could only have signaled a later phase of the same culture, we are completely at a loss to explain how the Indo-Aryans fell back from the city to the village state or how, after developing excellent brick houses, they later competed with inferior bamboo structures; or how, after once worshiping the Linga and the Mother Goddess, they stopped doing this in the Vedic period but later returned to their worship; or how, once they had occupied Sind, they later lost all memory of this land of the lower Indus ".3
Asco Parpolo's opinions on Indus civilization and Mahadevan's review of Asco Parpolo's view are given as follows.
The survival of Brahui; A Dravidian language, which is still spoken today by large numbers of people in Balochistan and the adjacent areas in Afghanistan and Iran, is an important factor in identifying the Indus civilization as a Dravidian. Brahui linguistically belongs to the North Dravidian group with several joint innovations with Kurukh and Malto; There are no dialectical features associated with the southern or central Dravidian languages. Hence, Parpola concludes that Brahui represents the remnants of the Dravidian language spoken by the descendants of the Harappan people in the region
The survival of place names is generally a good indicator of a region's linguistic history. Parpola points to several place names in the northwest such as Nagara. Palli, Pattana and Kotta with good Dravidian etymologies. 5
Parpolo also points out that the syntactic analysis of the Indus inscriptions revealed Dravidian typological features, especially the attribute before the keyword. 6
It has often been suggested that the complete absence of the horse from among the animals so prominently represented on the Indus seals is good evidence of the non-Aryan character of the Indus civilization.
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