Are some referees biased towards certain teams?
Are the referees biased against the home team?
I have come across many articles with abstracts of studies suggesting that referee bias indeed exists in many sports.
In "Basketball: Bias Refs (full article)" it says in the blurb:
The study found that the likelihood of fouling a visiting team was seven percent higher than calling the home team. They also found that they were 6.3 percentage points more likely to be fouled than if the home team were behind. Ultimately, the economists found that the greater the difference in fouls between the two teams, the more likely the next call will be made against the team with fewer fouls.
Gail Imber notes in his article "Referee Bias: Quantifying the Homer Effect and Reigning Home Advantage":
In particular, Boyko posits: "While unconscious referee bias does not necessarily make home advantage unfair, it is difficult to accept as fair our finding of a significant variation in home advantage by the referee."
All of the verifiable studies clearly concluded that the "homely effect" was due to unconscious variations in the game prompt - not a conscious attempt to manipulate or "throw" the game.
In Imber's article you will find links to various studies and articles. Some interesting excerpts:
- "Nevill asked qualified soccer referees to analyze various challenges that were taped with or without audio. Nevill found that when the audience noise variables were introduced, the referees reported 15.5 percent fewer fouls on the home team. "
- "The Los Angeles Times' Douglas Farmer summed it up as' unconscious submission to peer pressure '."
In the blog post entitled "More evidence of referee bias in football", Phil Birnbaum refers to two studies on European football - in the Spanish and German leagues. He notes:
Looking at the games in the Spanish Primera Division in two specific seasons (1994-95 and 1998-99), they found that referees granted almost twice as much extra time for the home team in games where the difference was exactly one goal followed as it led. More time goes to the team behind it, of course, as it gives them a better chance of tying the game.
The authors also note that a German magazine, "Kicker Sportmagazin", reviews all games and gives an opinion on which criminal calls were correct and which were incorrect (both actual and missed calls). It turns out that penalties imposed in favor of the home team were 5 out of 55 inadmissible. For visiting teams, however, it was only 1 in 21. The referees preferred the home team by about twice as many false positives.
False negatives also favored the home team. There have been 12 cases when the home team should have received a penalty but it wasn't. There were 19 such cases for the visiting team.
In an article on NBA referees, James Downie notes:
They found "evidence of three prejudices: preference for home teams, teams that lose during games, and teams that are behind in a multi-game playoff series. All three of these prejudices are plausible for the league's profitability." The authors calculate that during the regular season sales biases correspond to "a probability of winning that changes approximately 2.2% when a team goes from away to home" and a further 2.5% when fouls are involved. In the playoffs, the bias does not seem to have an impact on fouls, but the impact on sales almost doubles, keeping the probability change close to 5%. Maybe that's why coaches ask players to give 110% if they beat that 5% ...
In summary, it seems that referees in all sports show an unconscious preference for the home team, even when they try to be impartial.
TO EDIT: Added some excerpts that were mentioned in one of my comments below.
- How do drugs get their names
- What is the best farming business
- What was your favorite moment at Coachella
- What's your favorite pizzeria in Pittsburgh
- What are all devices of the thyristor family
- Supports Google Hangouts SMS
- What are the types of emotional intelligence
- Why does frankincense cause cancer
- What makes a historical figure great
- Make INFJ and ENFJ good partners
- Can Uber pick up and deliver cigarettes
- What are the cons of jQuery
- How do narcissists compliment you
- What are some python comment hacks
- How long is chapstick good
- How do I write a sentence of antonyms?
- Different types of insulin can cause cancer
- Are Stanford University certifications valid?
- Mass communication is a safe option
- Which is appealing simplicity or luxury
- Does iPhone 6s have international warranty
- How do apoenzyme and coenzyme differ
- Is BTC legal or illegal in India
- Did the people in the Soviet Union smoke
- Is feta cheese dairy
- Are you of Spanish descent but do not speak Spanish
- Health Tea with sugar increases weight
- What technology do criminal defense lawyers use
- What does dog grooming include
- What is Got7's ideal type of woman
- What luggage do travel professionals use
- Who was Lucie Aurore Dupin
- Why doesn't my dog stop coughing?
- How long itchy belt rose