Which is the best operating system in 2016

Windows 10

On November 20, 1985, the then still small software company Microsoft released Windows 1.0, the first graphical user interface for its MS-DOS operating system. Initially programmed as an extension of the operating system, Windows 1.0 lays the foundation for an unparalleled success story. Applications on MS-DOS computers can now finally be operated with the mouse, making the gray boxes attractive for the consumer market.

  1. 30 years of Windows - Windows 1.0
    Windows 1.0 is developed under the code name "Interface Manager" and released on November 20, 1985. The first graphical operating system for the PC cost 99 US dollars at the time, but was only moderately successful because it lacked applications.
  2. Windows 2.11
    In the following Windows version, too, the graphical user interface is still reminiscent of text-based user interfaces. Windows 2.11, released in 1989, already contains Microsoft Word.
  3. Windows 95
    Windows 95, developed under the working title "Chicago", appears in August 1995. The release is preceded by a detailed test phase, participants have to sign a confidentiality agreement.
  4. Windows NT 3.51 Server
    The further development of Windows NT 3.5 appears in May 1995 and supports newer 32-bit applications. Depending on the installation variant, it is available on disk (s) or CD-ROM.
  5. Windows NT 4.0
    The successor to NT 3.51 appears in July 1996 and is the last representative of the Windows NT series. The operating system has the graphical user interface of Windows 95 and therefore comes with wizards for configuration.
  6. Windows 98
    Windows 98, developed under the code name "Memphis", appears on June 25, 1998. The operating system offers barely any noticeable innovations compared to Windows 95, but offers USB support and a customizable user interface.
  7. Windows 2000
    Windows 2000 is being developed on the basis of the discontinued Windows NT 4.0 and is the predecessor of Windows XP. The operating system appears in a 32-bit and 64-bit version. Work on the 64-bit version will soon be discontinued.
  8. Windows ME
    The last operating system based on MS-DOS: Windows ME (Millennium) appears (late) on September 14, 2000. Problems with Internet Explorer and Windows Player delay the release several times.
  9. Windows XP
    Windows XP (code name "Whistler"), the technical successor to Windows 2000, appears in October 2001. The operating system is primarily aimed at home users and comes with a fresh user interface.
  10. Windows 7
    Windows 7, which has been redesigned in many areas, will be launched on October 22, 2009. A largely new user interface, better system security and the use of libraries in Windows Explorer are new.
  11. Windows 8
    As the successor to Windows 7, Windows 8 will be available on October 26, 2012. For the first time, two user interfaces are included: the Windows 8 Modern UI and the classic desktop view.
  12. Windows Server 2012
    The server version of the previously released Windows 8 will hit the market in September 2012. With the modern UI interface, a completely redesigned task manager and Active Directory Domain Services, the program stands out from its predecessors.
  13. Windows RT
    Windows RT is Microsoft's operating system for devices with chips of the ARM architecture such as smartphones or tablets. The operating system has many parallels to Windows 8. Due to weak sales figures, the production of Windows RT devices will be discontinued at the beginning of 2015.
  14. Windows 8.1
    Developed under the code name "Windows Blue", the update is intended to remove the dissatisfaction of many users with Windows 8. This is why the start button also returns. The link to Microsoft's OneDrive cloud service is now displayed by default.
  15. Windows 10
    With Windows 10, according to CEO Satya Nadella, Microsoft will not only bring the next version of its operating system onto the market in 2015, but also a completely new generation of Windows. The shift to Windows 10 also marks the switch to Windows as a Service: In the future, no new Windows versions will follow the previous pattern - instead, incremental improvements in the form of larger and smaller updates will be published. Win 10 brings numerous innovations compared to its predecessors, such as the IE successor Edge, virtual desktops or the digital assistant Cortana. In parallel to Windows 10, Microsoft also presented the successor to Windows Server 2012 - Windows Server 2016.

The beginnings of Windows

Thirty years ago, however, a race against time broke out for the first graphical user interface for the use of PCs. At this time, personal computers were generally used in companies. Bill Gates quickly realized that a graphical user interface (GUI) would be necessary so that the computer could one day find its place on every desk.

Under Microsoft's first MS-DOS operating system, users must have a certain amount of technical know-how in order to be able to operate the computer. Basic knowledge of the Basic programming language is an advantage at that time. The first version of Windows, however, still has very little resemblance to the graphical user interfaces as we know them today. The software is bulky, slow and only a few applications support it at all. If you want to start a small program like the pocket calculator, the required file (calc.exe) must first be found in the depths of the operating system and then started via the command line.

Xerox, Apple and the battle for the GUI

The initially rudimentary graphical user interface was revolutionary at the time - but the idea did not come from Microsoft. Two years earlier - in 1983 - Apple founder Steve Jobs launched the Lisa, one of the first computers with a graphical user interface. However, the device is expensive and therefore only appeals to a small group of computer enthusiasts. But the direction is set, the race begins.

  1. Apple Power Mac G4 Cube
    Technological pioneer, design wonder, hardly expandable, flop back then, cult today.

    CPU / clock: Motorola Power PC; 450 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 64 MB / 1.5 GB
    Colors / Resolution: 32 Bit / 1920x1200
    Year of construction: 2000
    Price: approx. 4500 DM
  2. Atari Mega STE
    Idiosyncratic compromise between home and semi-professional PC. No chance against MS Win.

    CPU / clock: Motorola 68000 with 16 MHz
    RAM (min / max): 1 MB / 4 MB
    colors / resolution: 4096 / 640x400 < br /> Year of construction: 1991
    Price: 2798 DM
  3. Atari Transputer ATW 800
    In the ATW, a Mega ST (I / O) and the actual transputer share the work.

    CPU / clock: max. 17 INMOX T-800; 20 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 4 MB / 16 MB
    Colors / Resolution: 24 Bit / 1280x960
    Year of construction: 1989
    Price: approx. 22,300 DM
  4. Atari Falcon 030
    Successor to the 1040 ST, hardly expandable, bad marketing, one of the last Atari flops.

    CPU / clock: Motorola 68030; 16 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 1 or 4 or 14 MB
    Colors / Resolution: 65536 / 1260x960
    Year of construction: 1992
    Price: 1899 DM
  5. AC1
    Computer kit project of the GDR magazine "Funkamateur", later also CP / M compatible.

    CPU / clock: U88D; 2 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 1 KB / 64 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 2 / 16x64
    Year of construction: 1984
    Price: 55 M (printed circuit board; converted approx. 13 DM)
  6. Acorn atom
    Competing with the ZX80, very flexibly configurable and networkable home computer.

    CPU / clock: MOS 6502A; 1 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 2 KB / 12 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 4 / 256x192
    Year of construction: 1980
    Price: 680 DM
  7. Altair 8800
    Flexibly expandable kit of interchangeable cards and one of the first home PCs.

    CPU / clock: Intel 8080; 2 MHz
    RAM (min / max): 256 bytes / 64 KB
    colors / resolution: none
    Year of construction: 1975
    Price: approx. 1200 DM
  8. Amstrad Notepad NC 100
    Easy to use computer with built-in programs immediately available.

    CPU / Clock: Zilog Z80; 6 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 64 KB / 1 MB
    Colors / Resolution: 2 / 480x64
    Year of construction: 1992
    Price: 310 DM
  9. Apple] [+
    The first PC introduced by Apple in Europe required a PAL card for color reproduction.

    CPU / clock: MOS 6502; 1,020 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 48 KB / 64 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 2 / 280x192
    Year of construction: 1979
    Price: approx. 2200 DM
  10. Apple iMac G3 "Bondi Blue"
    All-in-one design computer, launch system for an unprecedented race to catch up in the computer field.

    CPU / Clock: Motorola G3; 233 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 32 MB / 128 MB
    Colors / Resolution: 24 Bit / 1024x768
    Year of construction: 1998
    Price: 2999 DM
  11. Apple Macintosh XL (Lisa 2)
    Technically expandable successor to the Apple Lisa, the XL is the forefather of the Macintosh series.

    CPU / Clock: Motorola 68000; 5 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 512 KB / 1 MB
    Colors / Resolution: 2 / 720x364
    Year of construction: 1984
    Price: approx. 15,000 DM
  12. Newton MessagePad 2000
    The "forerunner" of the iPad with handwriting recognition that was still unsurpassed years later.

    CPU / clock: StrongARM 110; 162 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 4 MB
    Colors / Resolution: 16 gray levels / 480x320
    Year of construction: 1997
    Price: approx. 1990 DM
  13. Atari STacy
    Portable Atari ST, with empty / sealed battery compartment, as this would usually only last 15 minutes.

    CPU / clock: Motorola 68HC000; 8 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 1 MB / 4 MB
    Colors / Resolution: 2 / 640x400
    Year of construction: 1989
    Price: 1700 DM
  14. Commodore 65
    Unreleased successor to the C64, only approx. 250 prototypes, collector's value approx. 20,000 dollars.

    CPU / clock: CSG 4510; 3.54 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 128 KB / 8 MB
    Colors / Resolution: 256 / 1280x400
    Year of construction: planned 1991
    Price: 599 DM
  15. Commodore 128
    The last 8-bit computer from Commodore is a hybrid of home and workstation computer.

    CPU / clock: MOS 8502 + Z80A, 2.04 MHz each
    RAM (min / max) : 128 KB / 640 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 16 / 640x200
    Year of construction: 1985
    Price: 999 DM
  16. Commodore 16
    Planned as the successor to the VC20, it was only the 1st ALDI PC to become widely used.

    CPU / clock: MOS 7501; 885 KHz / 1.76 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 16 KB / 64 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 121 / 320x200
    Year of construction: 1985
    Price: 149 DM
  17. Commodore Plus / 4
    Despite the built-in programs, the inexpensive addition to the C64 offered too little and flopped.

    CPU / clock: MOS 7501; 1.77 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 64 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 121 / 320x200
    Year of construction: 1984
    Price: 1300 DM
  18. Compaq Portable
    One of the first computers with the MS-DOS operating system to be 100 percent compatible with IBM systems.

    CPU / clock: Intel 8088; 4.77 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 128 KB / 640 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 2 / 80x25
    Year of construction: 1983
    Price: 7300 DM
  19. Enterprise 128
    Idiosyncratic shape, strong graphics and sound. Can be networked directly with 32 other Enterprises.

    CPU / clock: Zilog Z80A; 4 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 128 KB / 4 MB
    Colors / Resolution: 256 / 672x512
    Year of construction: 1985
    Price: 1198 DM
  20. Dynalogic Hyperion
    The first portable (almost) 100 percent IBM compatible computer with MS-DOS or C / PM-86.

    CPU / Clock: Intel 8086; 4.77 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 256 KB / 640 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 16 gray levels / 320x200
    Year of construction: 1983
    Price: approx. 12,000 DM
  21. IBM 5100 Portable Computer
    The forerunner of the IBM PC, fully equipped and "portable" (24 kg).

    CPU / clock: IBM PALM, 1.9 MHz
    RAM (min / max): 16 KB / 64 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 2 / 16x64
    Year of construction: 1975
    Price: approx. 23,000 DM
  22. IBM PC Junior
    IBM PC disarmed (castrated) for the home computer, too expensive, too bad, a flop.

    CPU / clock: Intel 8088 / AMD D8088 4.77 MHz
    RAM (min / max): 64 KB / 128 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 16 / 640x200
    Year of construction: 1983
    Price: approx. 3,360 DM
  23. Jupiter ACE
    With built-in Forth language, very fast programs are possible, but still a flop.

    CPU / clock: Zilog Z80A with 3.25
    RAM (min / max): 3 KB / 51 KB
    Colors / resolution: 2 / 256x192
    Year of construction: 1983
    Price: 399 DM
  24. KC Compact
    Presented as a replica of the Schneider CPC on the 40th anniversary of the GDR, it came a few years too late.

    CPU / Clock: U880D; 4.0 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 64 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 27 / 640x200
    Year of construction: 1989
    Price: approx. 5000 M (around 1250 DM)
  25. Mattel Aquarius
    The Simpelst computer from Hong Kong was the only computer brought onto the market by Mattel.

    CPU / clock: Zilog Z-80; 3.5 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 4 KB / 20 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 16 / 80x72
    Year of construction: 1983
    Price: approx. 450 DM
  26. NEC PC 6001 MK II
    Computer with five BASIC modes, speech synthesizer and high-quality keyboard, only available in Japan.

    CPU / clock: µPD 780C-1; 3.99 MHz
    RAM (Min / Max): 64 KB
    Colors / Resolution: 16 / 320x200
    Year of construction: 1983
    Price: approx. 990 DM
  27. NeXTcube