How many muscles do we use for drawing

Getting air squats right

Air squats, bodyweight squats, squats or the “queen of all exercises” are one of the most popular and effective exercises in popular and competitive sports. But only if you do this exercise correctly will you strengthen your legs and get a nice bottom.

What are air squats

With the change from an active to a chair-seated society, we have largely forgotten this ability to sit in the deep squat. All the better that the squat has become an indispensable part of fitness and competitive sports.

Talking squats all big muscles on, in addition to the legs and buttocks, the core is also trained and strengthened. Squats are not only considered to be true muscle builders, but are also true due to the large area of ​​the muscles being used Calorie burners / calorie eater known.

Depending on the training goal, training level, available equipment, physical requirements and personal preferences, there are almost innumerable ways to train a squat. The basis of the squat is the Air Squat / Bodyweight Squat - the squat with your own body weight.

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What do you train in squats?

Squats are one of those Compound exercises. In comparison to isolation exercises, these are characterized by the fact that they use and train several muscles at once. Squats work almost the entire body. The focus is on the thighs, buttocks and torso.


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Primarily trained / stressed muscles:

  • Quadrizpes femoris muscle / thigh extensor / quadricpes: The 4-head thigh extensor is responsible for stretching the knee. Even when doing squats with “only” your own body weight, your thigh has to work hard to get you up from your crouch - to straighten your knees again.
  • Sciocrural muscles / posterior muscles / hamstrings: the ischocrural muscles are responsible for flexing the knee and stretching the hips. She "forces" you to your knees during the squats. The hamstrings are made up of the following muscles:
  • Biceps femoris / hamstrings / thigh flexors: Flexion in the knee; Extension in the hip; turns the leg outward when bending.
  • Semitendinosus muscle / half tendon muscle: Flexion in the knee; Extension in the hip; turns the leg inward when bending.
  • Semimembranosus muscle / plate tendon muscle / semi-membranous muscle: Flexion in the knee; Extension in the hip; turns the lower leg inwards. In free fitness exercises, such as squats without weight, all 3 muscles must be coordinated accordingly. This is the only way to prevent simultaneous external and internal rotation and keep the lower leg stable.
  • Gluteus maximus / gluteus muscle: During the squat, the glutes abduction the legs. The legs are turned slightly outwards. Since the glutes are also responsible for stretching the hips, they can be optimally trained by doing a squat.

Secondarily trained / stressed muscles:

  • Erector spinae muscle: The function of the back extensor is to straighten the back or to keep it straight when doing the squats.
  • Straight and lateral abdominal muscles: The straight and lateral abdominal muscles help the back extensor keep the upper body straight and stable during squats.
  • and the Twin calf muscle / calf musclel.


No two squats are the same. That doesn't just depend on the agility, the anatomy and the Type of squat, but also on whether a squat is executed correctly or incorrectly.

One speaks of a full squat when the buttocks are at the level of the hocks (motto: "Ass to the gras"). The Basis for a good squat lies in building tension in the hips, knees and ankles and being able to maintain them during the exercise.

Starting position / starting position:

  1. Stand upright, look straight ahead.
  2. The stance depends on the goal and mobility. The feet can be placed hip-width or shoulder-width apart. Shoulder-width stance is the most common stance. This can be transferred to many movements in fitness, ball and competitive sports.
  3. The body weight is on the whole foot. 3 point stand / three point foot. The natural arch of the foot automatically leads to a three-point stand (heel outer edge - big toe). If this foot position cannot be optimally assumed or maintained, stability and strength are lost.
  4. The feet can be turned parallel or slightly outwards, depending on their mobility. "Slight V-position", "Turn into the ground"; "Squeeze lemon".
  5. Knees are slightly bent.
  6. Arms hang loosely next to the body.
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Perform squat correctly / exercise execution

  1. Bring the back of your thighs back and down.
  2. Your chest is pointing straight ahead and not towards the floor.
  3. Tense your torso.
  4. Inhale as you bend your knees. Pull your shoulder back and bring your arms forward with the downward movement. Turn your thumbs inward as you go.
  5. Keep your knees neutral, i.e. your knees always move up and down on the same plane.
  6. The knees follow the tips of the toes.
  7. Just go so that you can maintain stability, balance, and tension. Your upper body leans slightly forward when you lower it.

Hard facts: The Depth of a squat depends in addition to mobility, agility, flexibility, execution, strength and motor control, in particular on the Anthropometry from. Due to the different lengths of body parts (here the thigh length), not everyone has the same mobility in the joints.

  1. In the lowest point for you, you push yourself up again with the strength of your legs.
  2. Exhale as you go.
  3. You bring your arms back next to your body while you come up.
  4. You finish one rep in an upright position.
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Common mistakes and how to avoid them! Tips and Tricks

# 1 Start with your knees

A common mistake when performing any type of squat is that the movement begins by buckling and pushing the knees forward. The strain on the knees is particularly great here.

Our tip: Imagine you would want to sit on a chair. You wouldn't hit him if you pushed your knees forward. For the first few inches of exercise, focus on the Back of thighs down to the back to push. Keep your knees out and your shins as vertical as possible. Tense your core muscles and keep your upper body upright.

# 2 The knees "knock knees" fall inwards

A frequently observed evasive or compensatory movement is the so-called inwardly collapsing knees. If the knees fall inward during a squat, this can have other causes besides a misalignment of the legs (knock knees). Inwardly collapsing knees occur especially in the upward phase. In addition to excessive weight, weak abductors, too wide or too narrow a stance, a lack of concentration and control, or limited mobility in the ankles, this can be a cause. Squats are one of the most complex exercises, it takes time, patience and a lot of practice to master a squat as flawlessly as possible.

Our tip: If your knees are falling in, check your stance. Turn your toes into the ground so your knees are facing out. Knees follow the tips of the toes. Take a little less weight and consciously push your knees outward as you rise. Mobilize your ankles regularly, especially before squatting.


© dusanpetkovic

# 3 Crooked back / head in neck / butt wink and Co.

Those who concentrate too much on the lower body tend to forget their upper body. Either the head is put back or the tension in the upper back is neglected.

Our tip: Keep your gaze straight ahead and your spine straight. Pull your shoulders back. Tense your latissimus (broad back muscle).

And what about the butt wink? The butt wink occurs mostly on the downward motion of deep squats. With the butt wink, the spine is no longer in its natural position at the lowest point of the movement. The Lumbar spine is rounded and the pelvis is pressed under the body.

The Causes and consequences a butt winks are controversial.

What is certain is that anatomical factors prevent the hip from flexing at a certain angle, thereby initiating an evasive movement in order to get as deep as possible "ass to the grass". In addition, a lack of control and muscular weakness in the back extensor can lead to the lumbar spine rounded. It is questionable whether “shortened” hamstrings (back of the thighs) could also be “to blame”. There is almost no measurable change in length of the hamstrings when the knee is bent. You cannot pull the pelvis “under your body”. Finally, the lack of mobility in the ankle joints could trigger a butt wink. If the knees cannot be brought forward during the squat, the pelvis must tilt to prevent loss of balance.

Whether this butt beckons damage to health depends on the type of squat, with a bodyweight squat, the loads are very low. It is recommended to train with the Full Range of Motion (exception: in the case of pain, back problems, previous damage). In order to protect the back, a butt wink should be avoided if possible when training with weights.

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Our tip: Mobilize your ankles before training, if necessary you can work with a ridge under your heels. Exercise your back extensor muscles regularly. You can do a few repetitions for the back extension before your squats to build up some tension and feeling. Don't challenge your back, exercise with appropriate weights and only go as deep as you can keep the tension in your back.

Excursus: How deep should you go in a squat? 90 ° in the knee joint or "Ass to the grass"? Squats only up to 90 ° - everything else is harmful! Correct? Not correct! Regardless of the exercise involved, in order to train efficiently and effectively, you should train with the full range of motion if possible. In addition, the load is greatest at 90% in the knee joint. If there are no health restrictions, go as deep as you can, as far as you can do the movement in a controlled and clean manner.

# 4 heels lift off the floor

If your heels are off the ground, there is an urgent need to improve mobility in your ankles. Distribute the weight over the whole foot (3 point stand) and bring your arms in front of your body with each repetition.


What are squats good for?

Squats are not only effective because of their everyday sequence of movements, theirs complexity and yours Multi-articulation numerous positive effects on the body:

  • Muscle building in legs and buttocks.
  • Six pack through squats? Squats strengthen your entire core and, in addition to leg training, are also an optimal six-pack training.
  • Due to the large number of muscles used, the calorie consumption when doing squats is high and supports fat burning.
  • Stability and coordination are trained and improved.
  • Exercises the cardiovascular system and increases general fitness
  • The articular cartilages in the hips, knees, and ankles are nourished by the movement.
  • Prevention of joint problems (especially knee joint).
  • Supports knee stability.
  • Improved sprint and jump performance.


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How many calories do you burn doing squats?

Squats are real calorie killers due to the large number of muscles involved and the many variation and progression options. However, an exact number cannot be given. The calorie consumption of squats varies from person to person and depends on various factors, such as age, height, gender, the amount of training, the training intensity and the duration of the training.


© puhhha

How many squats should you do a day?

A distinction must be made here between the type of squat and the goal. If you do squats with heavy weights, you should give yourself and especially your legs time to regenerate after a training session. It looks different with air squats. Squats can be done here every day to support mobility and the supply of cartilage. But here, too, should not be exaggerated, as soon as muscle soreness or pain occurs, a break should be taken. Muscles do not grow during exercise, but rather in the recovery phase afterwards. If you do a few bodyweight squats every day, you are doing something for your health and fitness. The same applies here: the dose makes the poison! Listen to your body. 300 squats a day even without weight could be too much!


Squat variants

There are innumerable ways to vary a squat. Depending on the goal, equipment, position, surface, aids, weight position, speed, physique and training level, another variant of the squat can be selected. The focus of the trained muscles differs from squat to squat.


Do you feel like exercising?With our free foodspring workouts, you can train effectively and specifically at home. Tailored to your goals and your training level. You decide: choose from many different workouts.

Discover workouts


Squats with your own body weight


Sumo Air Squats:

In a sumo squat, the stance is wider than shoulder width. Tip toes and knees are turned outwards. Due to the broad stance, the inside of the thighs (adductors) are more stressed. Sumo Air Squats are suitable for training beginners, as the wider stance allows you to stand more securely and to keep tension and balance better.


Pistol (Squats):

Pistols squats are one-legged deep squats. This exercise is very demanding and requires a high degree of mobility, coordination and strength. When standing, one leg is stretched forward and held straight while lowering and standing up. Keep your standing leg firmly on the floor and use your arms to balance.

Crab Squat Walk:

Or side step squat or monster walk. The starting point is the normal squat. In the deep squat, the position is held and a step to the side is taken with the right / left leg. The tension and depth of the squat must be maintained. Rotate your feet and knees slightly outwards as you step outwards. Then you catch up with the other leg. You can do this exercise either continuously, i.e. a certain distance and back, or on the spot.

© foodspring

Squat Bicycle Crunches:

Squat Bicycle Crunches are combination exercises. Here the squat and bicycle crunch were combined into one exercise. This will also make your abs burn. The starting position is the normal squat again. The hands are an exception. The hands are behind the head, like a normal bicyclye crunch. For a squat bicycle crunch, after coming up from the squat, the left elbow and right knee are brought together in front of the body. Then it goes back to the squat and then alternates between the right elbow and the left knee. Balance and coordination are particularly challenged and trained by the one-legged stance.

Jumping Squats:

Squat jumps, jump squats or squat jumps are basic plyometer exercises. Plyometric training is speed strength training that is dedicated to improving explosive strength. Reactive jumping strength training is carried out here through dynamic movements. Jumping squats are one of the basic exercises. Not only speed and jumping power are trained, but also coordination, strength and the cardiovascular system. Fat burning is in full swing, starting with the normal squat. In the lowest position there is an explosive jump straight up.The body is stretched in the air, the arms are used to gain momentum and balance. The landing is done in a smooth transition to the next squat. This exercise should only be used if the tension in the body, especially in the knees and back, can be maintained.

Squats with equipment

The most popular variants are squats with all kinds of aids, weights and surfaces. Special mention should be made of squats with barbells, dumbbells and kettlebells in different positions:

  • Back squats
  • Front squats
  • Overhead squat
  • Sumo squats
  • Paused squat
  • Goblet squats
  • Bulgarian split squats


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