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GUITAR TERMS

Transcript

1 GUITAR TERMS A a - Abbreviation for annular (Spanish): ring finger. With the letters p, i, m and a, the fingerings of the plucked hand are indicated in classical guitar notes. AC Abbreviation for Alternating Current: The current, which usually comes from our sockets, changes direction 50 times per second. Direct current (DC), on the other hand, always flows in the same direction. acappella - (Italian) singing without instrumental accompaniment. Acc. - Abbreviation for Accelerando (Italian): get faster. ad libitum - (Italian) at will, e.g. an optional instrument or any tempo. Adagio - 1st tempo: slow, b.p.m. 2. Term for a slow movement within a classical work. Active electronics - a battery-operated circuit that amplifies the guitar signal and thus gives the sound more pressure. With active pickups you can achieve stronger distortion, which is why they are especially used in hard rock. Chord - Several notes together make up a chord. Chords are e.g. Used for the song accompaniment and notated with letters (= chord symbols, guitar fingerings) above the notes and texts. Example: The chord named C major consists of the tones c e and g and is displayed as C above the notes or text. Acoustics - The science of sound and its generation, perception and diffusion. An acoustic instrument is an instrument that can be easily heard even without electrical amplification, e.g. the acoustic guitar. al Segno - (Italian) to play until the sign. al Fine - (Italian) instruction to play through to the end. E.g. Dal Segno al Fine: Play from the sign to the end, da Capo al Fine: Play through from the beginning to the end. Allegro - 1st tempo: fast, b.p.m. 2. Term for a fast movement within a classical work. - Free teaching material for guitar page 1

2 Amp - Abbreviation for Amplifier. Guitarists usually mean the guitar amplifier and box. Andante - 1st tempo: walking tempo, b.p.m. 2. Term for a rather slow movement within a classical work. Apoyando - plucking technique: After striking the string with the finger, it is placed on the next string. Arch Top - (English) arched top of a guitar. Arpeggio - notes of a chord played one after the other. B Bass guitar - The four-string bass guitar is tuned like the double bass, namely E-A-D-G, which is an octave lower than the four lower strings of the guitar. But there are also basses with five or six strings. The electric bass guitar (electric bass) is far more common than the acoustic version. B.P.M. - Abbreviation for "Beats Per Minute" (English for beats per minute). The tempo of a piece of music is specified in this measure. Example: 60 bpm is 60 beats per minute, i.e. 1 beat per second. Barre grip - a guitar grip in which a gripping finger grips several strings at the same time. The finger is placed across the fingerboard and pressed down. In fingering tables, the barre's fingering is shown as a bar. Bending - A playing technique in which the strings are stretched by the grasping hand, also called string pulling. Blues - (English) a melancholy style of music invented by the Afro-American slaves. Body - (English) body; in the case of guitars, this means the body of the sound. With acoustic and semi-acoustic guitars the body is hollow (= hollow body), with electric guitars not (= solid body). Bossa Nova style: Mixture between jazz and Latin American music. Bottleneck - originally a broken neck of a bottle that a guitarist slipped over his finger to slide over the strings. Today a slide tube made of glass or metal is used for this glissando effect. - Free teaching material for guitar page 2

3 Bridge - 1. (English) transition of a song. 2. English name for the bridge (at the lower end of the string on guitars) over which the strings are stretched. Fret - The guitar fingerboard is divided into frets (perpendicular to the strings). These frets are limited by metal frets. Each fret corresponds to a semitone step. Bypass - signal diversion, e.g. an effects device, the signal is therefore not processed by this device. C Chanson - (French) song. In the German language, the term is mainly used for French hits and pop songs. Capo - Abbreviation for Capotasto (Italian for capo). Coda - (Italian) closing part of a piece of music or a song. Chorus - 1st guitar effect, which should make the guitar sound like a guitar choir. 2. English term for refrain (Kehrvers): section in a song that recurs after each verse. Chromatic - The chromatic scale consists of 12 semitone steps. In contrast to diatonic instruments, which are limited to one key, you can play all keys on chromatic instruments. A chromatic tuner recognizes all twelve of these semitones and not just the 6 open strings of the guitar. Combo - combination of amplifier and loudspeaker box. Country - (English) folk music of the North Americans, is often associated with cowboys. cresc. - Abbreviation for crescendo (Italian): get louder. Cutaway - indentation on the guitar body, which should facilitate playing in high registers. D Da Capo - (Italian) from the beginning: When you have reached this instruction, you repeat the piece of music from the beginning. A listener can also use the term if they like a piece so much that they would like to hear it again. db Abbreviation for decibel (volume measure). - Free teaching material for guitar on page 3

4 DC - Abbreviation for Direct Current. E.g. effect devices for electric guitars are operated with direct current. Cover the front of the guitar body. decrescendo - (Italian): to become quieter. Diatonic - with diatonic scales (scales) the octave is divided into five whole and two semitone steps, as well as with the major and minor scales. On diatonic instruments (e.g. diatonic harmonica) only the scale's own notes of a major key (e.g. C major) can be played. Double Stop (English) two notes that are played at the same time. Dreadnought (English) widespread construction of the western guitar, the body shape of which is reminiscent of a battleship with this name. Triad chord made up of three tones, namely root, third and fifth. Major - key or scale with a major third, major sixth and major seventh starting from the root note. Major chords are chords with a major third from the root note. Major is more likely to be perceived as happy. E E-Bass - Abbreviation for electric bass guitar: The four-string bass guitar is tuned like the double bass, namely E-A-D-G, which is an octave lower than the four low strings of the guitar. But there are also basses with five or six strings. Electric guitar - Abbreviation for electric guitar, a guitar with electromagnetic pickups that must be connected to an amplifier in order to be heard. E-music - Abbreviation for serious music: Since the 1920s, a distinction has been made between serious (classical) music and light music (pop, jazz, hits ...). The subdivision is not entirely unproblematic and has administrative reasons (e.g. copyright). Electro-acoustic guitar - An acoustic guitar with a pickup that can be amplified if necessary. Enharmonic Confusion - This is how the fact is called that the same tone can have different names. For example, the F sharp is the same tone as the butt - simply in a different harmonic context. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 4

5 EQ - Abbreviation for Equalizer. Here the volume levels of the partials of a sound are matched to one another. The sound can be made fuller, duller, thinner or brighter. Equipment (English) Equipment, e.g. Instruments and accessories of a musician. Etude - practice piece, mostly with the aim of practicing a certain technique. Etudes can be beautiful, melodious compositions, but they can also be pure, abstract finger exercises or music reading exercises. F f - Abbreviation for forte (Italian): loud. fade in - fade in, get louder until the normal volume is reached. fade out - fade out, become quieter until nothing can be heard. Fake Book: A very comprehensive collection of music with famous standards, consisting of (often handwritten) lead sheets: Only the melody line, chords and texts are shown. The original fake books were created - in contrast to commercially available "real" music books - by listening to them and writing them down (often handwritten), without taking into account the copyright and were passed on by hand. Publishers later brought licensed versions of fake books onto the market and thus into the sheet music trade. Faking - (English) 1. pretend, 2. Older term for improvising. ff - Abbreviation for fortissimo (Italian): very loud. Fingerpicking, fingerstyle - (English) in English-speaking countries denote the plucking of the strings with the fingers of the playing hand. In German usage, the terms are mainly limited to plucking in the styles of folk, country or blues. Fingerpick - (English) a kind of pick that can be put on the fingers and replaces the fingernails when plucked. Flageolet tones - overtones that are generated by gently placing the finger on certain points (e.g. in the middle) on the vibrating string. These tones are not only popular as a sound effect, they are also helpful when tuning the guitar because they are more clearly recognizable. Flamenco traditional dance and music style from Spain. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 5

6 Flat Top (English) Flat top on the guitar. Flatpicking (English) a guitar playing style in which single notes are struck with the plectrum. Floyd Rose Manufacturer of a vibrato system that can withstand strong lever vibrato without the guitar going out of tune. This is achieved by a clamping saddle, which relieves the tuning mechanism. Feedback Feedback: The sound from the loudspeaker reaches the pickup (or microphone), is amplified again and reproduced through the loudspeaker. The resulting circle leads to an ever louder whistle. F-hole a sound hole, the shape of which resembles a curved f. Folk a style of music that popularized folk music. Folk songs are usually very simple and contain a lot of text. They are easy to accompany on the guitar. Footstool - a small, height-adjustable bench on which the guitarist places his foot. This makes it easier to play the guitar while seated. Foot switch Switch that is operated with the foot. For example, to switch guitar effects on and off. Frequency - a unit that indicates how many vibrations occur per second (in terms of acoustics). The higher the frequency, the higher the tone. Frequencies are given in Hertz (Hz). Fret - (English) fret, fret: The guitar fingerboard is divided into frets (perpendicular to the strings). These frets are limited by metal frets. Each fret corresponds to a semitone step. G Gaffa Tape - (English) robust, wide universal adhesive tape, practical for use on the stage. Gain - (English) strength of the input signal, with the gain control on amplifiers and effects devices, the strength of the distortion can be regulated. GEMA - Abbreviation for Society for Musical Performance and Mechanical Reproduction Rights: This German collecting society ensures that authors of musical works receive money when their works are performed or recorded. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 6

7 gig - (English) concert, performance. Gigbag - (English) guitar bag: A guitar is safely stored in it. Glissando - (Italian) gliding from one tone to another, whereby the tones in between are easily audible. Golpe - (Spanish) hit the soundboard of the guitar. This percussive playing technique is often used in flamenco. Flamenco guitars are therefore equipped with a special impact protection, the golpeador. Fingerboard - thin board on the guitar neck in which the frets are embedded. The notes are picked up there. H Neck - The long part of the guitar that has the fingerboard is called the guitar neck. Neck tie rod - A steel rod in the guitar neck, which is supposed to strengthen it. The neck curvature can also be adjusted on the neck tensioning rod. Headless - (English) instrument without a headstock, the tuning mechanism is located on the body. Hammer-On - (English) impact binding: With this technique, a finger of the gripping hand hits the string; this means that a new note sounds without the hitting hand having to strike it. Head Stock - (English) headstock of the guitar. Hollow Body - (English) hollow guitar body, this is used for acoustic amplification. Humbucker: Double-coil pickups have the property of suppressing background noises such as humming and also sound fatter than their single-coil counterparts, the single coils. I i - Abbreviation for indice (Spanish): index finger. With the letters p, i, m and a, the fingerings of the plucked hand are indicated in classical guitar notes. Inlay - (English), inlay (e.g. in the fingerboard): markings and decorations made of abalone or mother-of-pearl that are embedded in the wood. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 7

8 Input - (English) input socket into which a cable (e.g. guitar cable) can be plugged. Input also stands for the signal that goes into a device (e.g. effects device). Intonation - The intonation of a guitar is correct when all notes (open strings and fingered notes) have the correct pitch. Intro - (English) introduction to a song. J Jack - (English) jack connector, used with guitar cables. Jam Session - (English) interplay of musicians off the cuff. When jamming, people listen to each other and improvise together. Jam Track - Accompanying music on sound carrier to which you can improvise. Jammerhaken - term for the vibrato lever jazz - (English) a widespread, comprehensive style of music that originated in New Orleans at the beginning of the 20th century, when African-American people mixed gospel and blues with European marching music. K Concert pitch - tuning pitch: Designation for pitch a1, which is used as a reference pitch for tuning. Its frequency is 440 hertz. Capo - sliding clamp that shortens the string length. The capo makes it easier to transpose and play in difficult keys. There are songbooks with transposed chords (which are supposed to be easier to play) and the comment like "Capo 3rd fret" which means that the capo must be clamped in the 3rd fret so that the chords match the notes below. Church modes - In the Middle Ages, before the invention of the major / minor system, there were church modes - also known as modes. They always contain the same seven notes, the difference being where the scale begins. For example, Dorian contains the notes of the C major scale but goes from d-d1. Klampfe - slang term for guitar or another term for wandering guitar. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 8

9 Classical guitar - acoustic guitar with a wide, flat neck and nylon strings. Also called the Spanish guitar. Clamping saddle - saddle that clamps the strings. If the vibrato lever is used heavily, the tuning mechanism is prone to detuning. A clamping saddle holds the strings in place and keeps the mood stable. Guitars with clamp saddles have a fine tuning mechanism on the bridge. Corpus - (Latin) body. In the case of guitars, this means the body of the sound: it is mostly made of wood and, in the case of purely acoustic instruments, is hollow. Concert - 1st event at which music is performed. 2. Musical form: work in which one or more solo instruments stand in the foreground and are accompanied by an orchestra. Concert guitar - another term for classical guitar, a guitar with nylon strings. Headstock - upper part of the guitar on which the machine head is located. L Position - Position means the position of the left hand on the fingerboard when playing the guitar. The location is usually indicated with Roman numerals above the staff and is based on the fret on which the index finger is placed. The layer play allows higher notes to be achieved and more comfortable fingerings to be used. The choice of position also affects the sound of the notes played. Largo - 1st tempo: broad, very slow, b.p.m. 2. Term for a very slow movement within a classical work. Latin - (English) Latin American (pop) music. Lute - generic term for stringed instruments that are composed of a neck and a sound box and where the strings run parallel to the top of the sound box (i.e. the guitar also belongs to the lute). Mostly, however, the term is used for the European lute: This consists of a pear-shaped resonance body with a rosette, a short neck and a vertically bent pegbox and developed from the Arabic oud, which was brought to Spain in the late Middle Ages. Lead Guitar - (English) the lead guitar plays the melody or the guitar solo, while rhythm guitars are responsible for the accompaniment.Lead guitarists mainly play single notes, rhythm guitarists mainly play chords. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 9

10 Lead Sheet - (English) sheet music on which only the melody line and chord names and, if applicable, lyrics are noted. The musicians who work with such lead sheets improvise and arrange on the fly. Open string - a string that is not fingered. The tones of the open strings of a normally tuned guitar are E, A, D, G, B (B) and E. Les Paul - Les Paul was an American guitarist who developed the electric guitar in collaboration with the Gibson company. Gibson named the solid body guitar he designed after him, a type of guitar that has been imitated by countless manufacturers. Lick - (English) small, musical motif. From licks you can e.g. Assemble guitar solos. The term is mainly used in pop, rock, jazz and blues. M m - Abbreviation for media (Spanish): middle finger. With the letters p, i, m and a, the fingerings of the plucked hand are indicated in classical guitar notes. Scale length - the freely vibrating area of ​​a string, which is located between the bridge and saddle on the guitar. The larger the scale with constant tension, the deeper the tone. Metronome - Mechanical or electronic device that indicates the beat by a repeated acoustic signal. The tempo can be regulated and is set in b.p.m. measured. mf - Abbreviation for mezzoforte (Italian): medium loud. MIDI - Abbreviation for Musical Instrument Digital Interface (English): sound format that controls a synthesizer (e.g. on a computer or on a synthesizer keyboard). MIDI only tells the synthesizer which instrument has to play which note on the synthesizer, but not how it should sound. That's why MIDI files sound a little different on each device. The advantage of MIDIs is the low memory requirement, which is why you can often find audio samples or jam tracks in this format on the Internet. Mixer - device on which all signals come together. The volume of the individual signals can be matched to one another on a mixing console and the sound of some of them can be changed. Moderato - 1st tempo: moderate, b.p.m. 2. Designation for a movement at a moderate tempo within a classical work. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 10

11 minor - key or scale with a minor third and a minor sixth above the root. Minor chords are chords with a minor third from the root. Minor is often perceived as sad. Monitor - speakers or screen. Motif - a musical motif is an easily recognizable sequence of notes, which is part of a composition as an independent element. The motif can be part of a theme, a melody or a phrase - just as a word is part of a sentence. mp - Abbreviation for mezzopiano (Italian): medium quiet. Multicore - (English) thick, multi-core cable that connects the devices on the stage with the mixer in the hall. Mute - mute, mute. Signals can be muted with the Mute button. In terms of playing technique, mute also means muffling the strings with the ball of the hand (palm muting) or with the fingers. N Noise - (English) noise, noise. Clef - character at the beginning of the staff. The clef determines which note is on which staff line. For example, the treble clef (G clef) shows that the G can be found on the second bottom line. O Offbeat - (English) emphasis on the 2nd beat in the measure. Open tuning - The guitar is tuned so that the open (= empty) strings form a simple chord, e.g. D-G-D-G-H-D. Open tunings are mainly used when playing slide guitar. Octave - an interval (= distance between two tones) consisting of 12 semitone steps or the 8th tone of a (diatonic) scale. Example: The c 'is an octave higher than the c. op. - Abbreviation for Opus, (Latin): work. The works of a composer are numbered with opus numbers and entered in the catalog raisonné. Open Tuning - (English) open mood. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 11

12 Output - signal that leaves the device. Output sockets (e.g. on the guitar) are also called this. Outro - (English) the outcome of a song. P p - Abbreviation for piano (Italian): quiet. p - Abbreviation for pulgar (Spanish): thumb. With the letters p, i, m and a, the fingerings of the plucked hand are indicated in classical guitar notes. P90 - single coil pickup, as it is mainly installed by Gibson. The P90 has a very warm and dynamic sound. Palm Muting - (English) playing technique in which the strings are muted with the heel of the playing hand. Pattern - (English) pattern which is continuously repeated. Example: Rhythmic attack pattern of the right hand on the rhythm guitar or plucking pattern. Pick Guard - (English) pickguard, which protects the body from scratches by the plectrum. Pick Up - (English) pickup. Device on guitars that uses electromagnetic induction to pick up the sound of the strings in order to pass it on to the amplifier. There are single-coil (single coils), double-coil (humbuckers) and piezo pickups. Plectrum - (Latin) plate which is used for striking the strings. Other names are plectron (Greek), plek (abbreviation), pick (English) or simply plate. Plug - (English) plug. Power Chord - (English) chord in which the third is omitted, so the distinction between major and minor is also omitted. Power chords are easy to grasp and sound very powerful, especially on the electric guitar. These fifth chords can also be shifted very well on the guitar and are very popular with rock guitarists. pp - Abbreviation for pianissimo (Italian): very quiet. Prelude - Prelude or instrumental introductory piece that prepares or introduces other pieces. Presto - 1st tempo: very fast, b.p.m. 2. Term for a very fast movement within a classical work. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 12

13 Prim - interval (= distance between two tones) of zero semitone steps. D.H. Twice the same tone (e.g. C and C) are a prime apart. Sounds complicated, but it's just like that. Pull-Off: With this technique, a finger of the gripping hand is pulled away from the string being gripped; this means that a new note sounds without the hitting hand having to strike it. PVG - Abbreviation for Piano / Vocal / Guitar (English): Songbooks or sheet music arranged for voice, piano and guitar accompaniment (chord symbols). Q Quart - interval (= distance between two tones) consisting of five semitone steps. Example: C and F. Quint - interval (= distance between two tones) consisting of seven semitone steps. Example: C and G. Circle of fifths - Clear, circular representation of the keys in fifths apart. The circle of fifths is used to identify related keys and chords as well as to determine the key according to the number of accidentals. R Rack - (English) shelf that is standardized to a width of 19 inches. Effects devices and other audio devices are housed here. Real Book - (English) name of the legendary jazz fakebook, which was created in the 1970s at the Berklee Colledge of Music. To this day, the Real Book is the standard work of jazz and serves many musicians as a basis for improvisation. Since it is also available in different keys (C, Bb, Eb and Bass version), different instruments can play together. Refrain - (French) part of a song that stays the same with every passage. Resonator - resonance cone made of aluminum on the body of the guitar, which amplifies the guitar without the use of electricity. Reverb - (English) reverb and echo effect, to be found on almost every guitar amplifier. Rhythm guitarist - In contrast to the solo guitarist, rhythm guitarists in the band do the accompaniment, i.e. they play rhythmic chords. The English term rhythm guitar can often be read in songbooks. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 13

14 Tube - electronic component (looks something like a lightbulb), which, among other things, serves to amplify signals and is used in guitar amplifiers. Compared to the much more practical and cheaper transistors, the tube is preferred by many sound purists because the sound should be better. Rosette - carved decorations and inlays above and around the soundhole of the guitar or lute. Riff - (English) constantly repeated motif in rock music, which also ensures the recognition effect of a piece. Rit. - Abbreviation for ritardando (Italian): slow down. Feedback - The sound from the loudspeaker enters the pickup (or microphone), is amplified again and played back through the loudspeaker. The resulting circle leads to an ever louder whistle. S string position - distance between the strings and the fingerboard. If it is too high, it takes too much effort to depress the strings and the guitar sounds out of tune. If it is too deep, it rattles because the strings are touching the frets. Saddle - small crossbar made of bone or plastic with grooves for the strings at the head end of the guitar neck. The saddle supports the strings and holds them apart. Scale - (English) scale: scale. Sound hole - opening on the front of the guitar body that lets the sound out. Pickguard - plate on the body that is supposed to protect it from scratches by the pick. Striking guitar - 1st playing technique in which entire chords are struck rhythmically with the thumb, fingers or plectrum - e.g. for song accompaniment at the campfire. 2. Common term for jazz guitar in German-speaking countries. Second - Interval (= distance between two tones) from one (= small second) to two (= large second) semitone steps. Example large seconds: the notes C and D. Semi-acoustic guitar - semi-acoustic or semi-resonance guitar: Electric guitar with a partially hollow body, but flatter than the full resonance guitar. Seventh - Interval (= distance between two tones) from ten (= small seventh) to eleven (= major seventh) semitones. Example major seventh: the tones C and H. - Free teaching material for guitar page 14

15 sixth - interval (= distance between two tones) from eight (= small sixth) to nine (= large sixth) semitone steps. Example large sixth: the notes C and A. Sheet Music - collective term for editions of popular music in the form of sheet music, lead sheets, songbooks or fake books. Single Coil - (English) pickup with only one coil. Slash Chord - (English) chord in which the root note is not in the bass. The bass note is behind the slash in the chord name. Example: D / A is a D major chord with an A in the bass. Slide - glissando: A playing technique in which you slide from note to note with the gripping finger or from chord to chord with a tube. Solid Body - (English), massive guitar body (not hollow). Solid State - (English), transistor technology. Solo - (Italian) alone: ​​A soloist either plays alone or he plays the main voice (lead voice) while the other musicians accompany in the background. The guitar solo is an instrumental part in a song or piece of music in which the guitarist comes to the fore musically. A solo guitarist plays alone or is accompanied by other musicians in the background. In the band, the solo guitarist is the one who plays the lead guitar. Sonata - Towards the end of the 16th century, sonata was still a general term for instrumental pieces without a special form. From 1750 the term stands for an instrumental piece in several movements, whereby the sonata main movement form (exposition - development - recapitulation) is used in the first movement. Sonatas are available for 1 (solo sonata), 2 (duo sonata) or 3 (trio sonata) solo instruments, with or without piano accompaniment (or basso continuo). Larger ensembles are called a quartet, quintet, etc., while a sonata for orchestra is called a symphony. Sonatina - small sonata, with not so strict formal requirements. Soundtrack - background music for a film or game. Spanish Guitar: This name is used to distinguish the Spanish nylon string guitar from the American steel string guitar. One understands nothing else than a classical concert guitar or a flamenco guitar. Speaker - (English) (loudspeaker) speaker. Stack: a box with an amplifier on it is called a half stack, two boxes and an amplifier are a stack. Amplifier towers are especially needed in rock music when it should be particularly loud. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 15

16 bridge - crossbars or stringed saddles that support the strings at the lower end in front of the tailpiece. Steel Guitar - (English) Hawaiian guitar: The lap steel guitar is placed on the thighs with the strings facing up and played with a metal tube or stick, which makes a wailing sound. The pedal steel guitar stands on a stand and has pedals to change the pitch of the strings. Hawaiian guitars are particularly popular in country music. Tuning fork - metal fork, the prongs of which produce a pure tone with little overtone when struck. The tuning fork specifies the tuning tone (e.g. a1, 440 Hertz) in order to tune the instrument accordingly. Tuning pitch - concert pitch: Designation for pitch a1, which is used as a reference pitch for tuning. Its frequency is 440 hertz. Stratocaster - (English) a legendary type of construction for electric guitars developed by the Fender company, which has been copied by countless manufacturers. As a further development of the Telecaster, the Stratocaster is equipped with 3 pickups, a vibrato system, another tone control and a more ergonomic body. Verse - Continuous text in a song that changes with each pass. Study - (English) exercise piece, see Etüde SUISA - Cooperative of authors and publishers of music: This organization manages the copyrights of Swiss and Liechtenstein composers and music publishers. It ensures that authors of musical works receive money when their works are performed or recorded. Suite - a sequence of instrumental pieces (= movements) that are played in a given order. Most of the time, the individual movements are dances such as Minuet, sarabande, bourrée or similar. Some suites also open with an overture. Suites are often found in the lute music of the Renaissance and Baroque periods. T TAB - Abbreviation for tablature: Griffschrift, which is often used in stringed instruments: Horizontal lines represent the strings, numbers show the frets where the notes are. Many guitarists cannot read music and therefore like to use tablature. In tabs, however, certain effects can also be represented better than in the standard notation. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 16

17 Telecaster - (English) a legendary construction type for electric guitars developed by the Fender company, which has been copied by countless manufacturers. The Telecaster is, so to speak, the original form of the solid body guitar. Third - Interval (= distance between two tones) from three (= minor third) to four (= major third) semitone steps. Example of a major third: the notes C and E. Tirando - plucking technique: After striking the string with the finger, it is pulled away instead of being placed on the next page. Toggle Switch - Switch on the electric guitar to select the pickups. Transistor - electronic component used for signal amplification (e.g. in guitar amplifiers). Today, transistors replace a large part of the impractical and expensive electron tubes. Transcription - rewriting: 1. Arrangement for a different instrumentation (instrument) than the original one, 2. Transfer from old musical notation into today's notation, 3. Transfer of recordings into musical notation or tablature by listening out. Transpose: changing the pitch of an entire piece of music or a single voice, e.g. from C major to E flat major. Transposing instruments are those that sound at a different pitch than they are written on the sheet of paper. D.H. a Bb clarinet that plays the note C is actually playing a B. With a capo, a guitar can also play transposing. Treble - treble components of the sound, or controls on the instrument or amplifier to regulate the high partials. If you turn the control up, the high partials sound louder and the overall sound becomes brighter. Tremolo - multiple, quick changes between loud and quiet or the same note struck several times in quick succession. The vibrato system of the electric guitar is sometimes incorrectly called a tremolo. Tritone - another term for excessive fourths or diminished fifths, i.e. an interval (= distance between two tones) of six semitone steps. The tritone is also the middle of an octave (= twelve semitones). Tube - (English) (electron) tube: electronic component which is used for signal amplification and therefore e.g. is used in guitar amplifiers. Tuner - (English) 1st tuner, 2nd peg of the tuning mechanism on the guitar. Tutti - (Italian) at this point everyone plays along. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 17

18 U ukulele - string instrument from Hawaii, which has the same shape as a guitar, is half the size and with four strings (a'-d'-fis'-h 'or g'-c'-e'-a') is covered. Inversion - changing the place of the tones within a chord. Light music - Abbreviation for light music: Since the 1920s, a distinction has been made between serious (classical) music and light music (pop, jazz, hits ...).The subdivision is not entirely unproblematic and has administrative reasons (e.g. copyright). Unplugged - (English) not amplified, purely acoustic: Since the 1990s, more emphasis has been placed on handmade, acoustic music in rock and pop music. On his album "Unplugged", for example, electric guitarist Eric Clapton plays the acoustic guitar. Copyright - 1. Fundamental right to the protection of intellectual property: the composer always remains the composer of his work; someone else's invention must not be passed off as his own. 2. All laws and regulations in the various countries that guarantee this protection of intellectual property. V Valve - (English) (electron) tube: electronic component which is used for signal amplification and therefore e.g. is used in guitar amplifiers. Verse - (English) verse of a song, part of the text that changes with each passage. Amplifier - electronic device used to amplify the signal (such as an electric guitar). Not to be confused with the loudspeaker, which converts the electrical signals into sound at the end. Vibrato - multiple, regular changes in pitch while holding the note. This effect is created by moving the gripping finger up and down on a gripped note or with the vibrato lever. Vibrato system - Specially designed tailpiece for electric guitars, which allows the string tension to be changed using a vibrato lever and thus to generate a vibrating, whining sound. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 18

19 W western guitar - steel string guitar, also called folk guitar. The western guitar developed in the USA in the 19th century from the Spanish nylon string guitar. It is often used to accompany songs, also because the steel strings are louder than nylon strings. Whammy Bar - Vibrato lever. The following effects can be created with it: Vibrato (fast, repeated up and down), Whammy Dip (press lever briefly once) or Dive Bomb (press lever down until the strings are completely relaxed). Wireless - (English) wireless signal transmission by radio. X XLR - three-pin, symmetrical cable or plug connection for signal transmission in instruments. For example, with an XLR cable the microphone connected to the amplifier. Y Youtube - (English) name of a well-known video portal on the Internet: Here users can upload self-made videos and share them with others. Many guitarists also show their skills in this way or even give video lessons. Z Zarge - side wall of the body of the acoustic guitar. - Free teaching material for guitar on page 19