What is computer software
EDP explanation and definition
Specifically, the EDP process consists of several basic steps. The three basic elements, which in themselves already meet the requirements of the EDP, are as follows:
- Entering data
- Storage of data
- Output of data
Other possible processes that can take place within data processing are the sorting of data, the filtering of data, the cataloging of data and the linking of data.
Furthermore, the transmission of data, the conversion of data, the deletion of data as well as the processing or modification of data can be part of the EDP. The computer needs special ones for all of these processes Data processing programs. EDP with teleprinter takes place very rarely. In this case, information is transferred to punched tape.
Progress & development in IT
Because of the rapid and varied development of EDP and the technologies with which it is carried out, the range of EDP hardware and software is also very extensive. The basis are ever more powerful chips. Also the capacity of so-called Supercomputers, with which EDP takes place, is continuously increased by an increasing number of parallel working and storing processors.
For solving specific tasks one works on the development of computers with human abilities. This includes learning or speech recognition. For so-called expert systems, different brain functions should be able to be taken over by computers. The corresponding hardware operates under the name Neuro-Computer. Even portable devices like Smartphones, Notebooks and iPads can be used more and more universally for IT tasks.
The IT technology
EDP technology is based on the concept of managing and processing mass data. It follows the Tayloristic organizational principles and experienced its first major development spurt as early as the Second World War. The theoretical and practical basic principle of EDP consists of input, processing and output, which is why it is EVA principle is called.
The IT process begins with the computers receiving data. These data are processed in the course of this process. At the end of the IT process, the data is output. The output process is subject to the coded processing instructions of the respective data processing program. The input and output data form the basis of the EDP. The core process of EDP is therefore that Converting input data and output data. The processing steps can be determined according to the structure of the input data and are mostly integrated into the corresponding data processing programs.
History of EDP
The term data processing comes from the 20th century and was mostly used by administrations. At that time, however, research projects also specifically served to collect and evaluate data. long before IBM started working in the field of data processing, theAtanasoff-Berry computer, which came onto the market as the first electronic digital calculator in the late 1930s. It was designed for military use.
As early as the 1950s, the computing unit used to process and record data was always electronic, which is why it was already possible to speak of electronic data processing (EDP). However, the disks were usually Punch cardsthat have been mechanically processed. In the course of time, the focus of data processing was more and more on the electronic component.
The first commercial business computer was developed in Great Britain in 1951. He became known under the name LEO. Until the end of the 1950s, many punch card manufacturers were also involved in the further development and marketing of computers. That included Hollerith and IBM.
Computer systems for businesses
The first commercial computer systems were only installed in large companies that could afford to invest in purchasing such hardware and train the appropriate personnel. However, there was still no literature on it EDP software, but the operating instructions have only been printed for internal use.
Initially, many large users developed their own software for internal electronic data processing. A lot of personnel was required for this. Further downsides of the EDP were the high Hardware cost and the relatively slow processing speed. Therefore the developers were forced to bring better computer programs and the corresponding hardware onto the market. However, data processing with the help of punch cards was very time-consuming and error-prone. Therefore one began later the data on magnetic tapes and Magnetic disks save.
In the 50s and 60s the introduction of the 1401 computer was through IBM and the delivery of the computer 1301 by ICT is already a step forward. Like all EDP machines of that time, they consisted of a processing unit, several magnetic tape decks, printers and a punched card entrance. For the operation of these computers, specially air-conditioned rooms were usually necessary.
First IT approaches for companies
Soon even smaller companies had the opportunity to process their data electronically, because specific software, such as for wage and goods invoices, was developed and delivered with the data processing machines. In addition, special Service offices established in which computing hardware was made available that small businesses could use until their own machines arrived.
For the production of the first EDP software, the development teams were divided into two groups. The first consisted of system developers and the second of programming. Then the first group developed the computer programs and the second translated them into computer language.
The first computer journal was published in Great Britain as early as 1958 to provide instructions on how to use a computer. In addition, the British Society of Certified Accountants formed a data processing committee to provide information on the possibilities and advantages of working with computers. In 1959 the company published the first brochure. It was an introduction to electronic data processing with computers. A year earlier there was an information sheet about electronic accounting, which explained how computers can be used for bookkeeping.
End of the punch cards
Although it was already known in the 1960s that it would be a great advance in electronic data processing to completely separate oneself from punched cards and only save the data on magnetic disks, one had to wait for the next generation of computers.
It wasn't until the 1970s that electronic ones began Storage media to displace punch cards more and more. The screen-supported recording procedures finally prevailed. The punch card has been replaced in many places by new storage media such as magnetic disks and floppy disks. Nevertheless, punched cards and punched tapes played an important role in IT until the 1980s. In a few cases they were still used later.
The operation of IT systems in companies and institutions
Every larger company has its own IT department for payroll accounting, balance sheet accounting and materials management. Administrators and system administrators, who are responsible for maintenance and repair tasks, ensure the reliable operation of the computer-aided EDP systems. You set up networks and are responsible for securing them.
Until a few years ago, most IT departments also employed their own programmers. Because of the good standard software that is available today for all areas of EDP, this field of activity is becoming less and less important. Nevertheless, there is not only in companies, but also in Universities and public institutions full-time IT administrators. In schools A teacher is usually assigned to look after the IT systems.
Using the same software helps the different companies to communicate comfortably with one another. With the new acquisition of the most modern EDP technology is because of the strict regulations for the disposal When it comes to electronic waste, cleaning up old ones is a problem.
Overlap between IT and telecommunications
Electronic data exchange is an important part of EDP. In the meantime, data processing is often used in Networks relocated. The importance of telecommunications continues to grow. Every modern IT department is supported by electronic communication media. Outsourcing is also playing an increasingly important role for IT departments. The Outsourcing services often adopted by telecommunications providers.
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