Wouldn't be considered artificial gravity


How does a ball fly through a spaceship that creates artificial gravity?


Everyone has experienced the principle of a spaceship with artificial gravity on their own body. For example, if you drive your car around a curve or have fun on the chain carousel, the centrifugal force pushes outwards. The same power could supply a spaceship with artificial gravity in space. The spaceship would have to be cylindrical like a tin can and rotate continuously around its own longitudinal axis. The astronauts experience a force that always works outwards. The jacket of the cylinder is thus the "floor" of this artificial world.

How a ball moves in this environment or how we perceive this movement depends largely on where we are observing what is happening. Because forces that an astronaut experiences inside the rotating spaceship do not actually appear from the outside. Physicists refer to these forces as inertial or apparent forces. For example, there is no centrifugal force that appears to work outwards. Instead, the spaceship wall has to exert an inward force on objects and people so that they stay on the orbit in the spaceship. Only the astronauts take this force in the opposite direction, i.e. outwards, than was centrifugal force.

Like centrifugal force, the strength of this artificial gravity is proportional to the frequency of rotation and the radius of the spaceship. In a spaceship that rotates once every two minutes and that has a diameter of 500 meters, we would feel an acceleration of only 0.685 m / s2. The acceleration due to gravity that we experience on earth every day is 9.81 m / s2. The conditions in a spaceship with a diameter of five kilometers would be more pleasant. This would be a small world with an almost earth-like acceleration of 6.85 m / s2 (see the science fiction short story "Test of courage in the Henson tube" by William Jon Watkins)

We can reduce our rotational frequency and thus our centrifugal force by running against the direction of rotation of the spaceship wall. This partial cancellation is due to the so-called Coriolis force, another apparent force. Unlike centrifugal force, however, it only affects objects or astronauts moving within the spaceship. Their direction is then perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the spaceship and this direction of movement. It is crucial that it is proportional to the proportion of the speed that is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. If you throw a ball along the axis of rotation of the spaceship, no centrifugal force would act, since with a radius of 0 the centrifugal force is also 0. The Coriolis force would also disappear, since the speed of the ball would be parallel to the axis of rotation.

Depending on the strength of this Coriolis force, strange effects can occur with any kind of ball game on the spaceship wall.
For example, what happens when you stand on the spaceship wall, hold a ball in your hands and just let go of it. Viewed from the outside, the rotation of the spaceship means that the ball has a certain initial speed tangential to the current direction of movement. He maintains this direction and speed until he hits a spaceship wall again (which has meanwhile continued to rotate). From the astronaut's point of view, the ball falls to the ground next to him in a curved curve. Although the ball moves at a constant speed in one direction as soon as it is no longer connected to the rotating spaceship wall via the astronaut, the astronaut has a completely different impression: The ball falls back to the ground (almost like on earth) .