Have onomatopoeia etymologies

Etymologie, Etimología, Etymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
_e Introduction, Introducción, Introduction, Introduzione, Introduction
Wortgeschichten, l'histoire des mots, the history of words

Dear visitor

Welcome to the etymology portal.

Have you ever wondered what a bug has to do with a computer glitch?
Or what connects a block of wood with a virtual diary (blog)?
Or what does a hippopotamus have in common with a feather?
Or why do you iron and not smooth?
You will find a linguistic answer to these and similar questions here.

Here you will find:
  • Words and words about words
  • Words and words about words
  • Word stories and stories about word stories
  • Word Links and Links to Word Links
  • Word lists and lists with word lists
  • Dictionaries and links to dictionaries


On the etymology portal, the focus is on the individual word and its history. But you will also find many links to other sites and books with word stories here.

When searching for the origin and the development of words, one comes across the question of regularities in the development of words from Indo-European to the various European national languages ​​from Old High German, Middle High German to today's regional dialects and today's "High German language" (a term that not of qualitative but of regional origin).
In short, one comes to linguistics with its many questions.

There is also a lot of other information helpful when searching for words and their stories. And so you will also find links to dictionaries, encyclopedias, collections of abbreviations and word collections of all kinds.

In addition to individual words, idioms, idioms, winged words and quotes often have interesting stories that cannot usually be deduced from the individual words. And so you will also find all kinds of idioms and links to collections of quotations.

Many names go back to old job titles or emerged as designations of origin.
On travel websites you can occasionally find references to the origin of country names or place names.
Many words and phrases can be traced back to the Bible or certain translations of the Bible.
Greek and Roman mythology left their mark on European languages.
Scientific plants and animal names contain mainly Greek and Latin stems.
The Arabic language has left many traces through Spain and trade relations in the Mediterranean, but also through scientific contributions.
At least since the discovery of America and worldwide shipping, many words from all parts of the world have found their way into European languages.
In general, many terms come from the seaman's language, but also from the language of other professional groups such as legal language or the "hunter's Latin" - you have to be careful that nothing "gets lost".
Since our languages ​​are alive, there are also many words that - together with professions or certain forms of life - are lost. But new words are also created every day - not always just Anglicisms.
Surely there is still a lot to be mentioned here. - But just look around and be surprised.

etymology
the science of the origin of words

The "etymology" goes back to the Latin "etymologia" and the Greek "etymología" and is composed of the Greek "étymon" = German "true", "really", Greek "tò étymon" = "the truthful" , and Greek "lógos" = German "speech", "word", "reason", "reflection", "philosophical proposition", "doctrine".

In the book "Trésor du terroir" by Roger Brunet (p.9) the Greek "étymon" is further led back to an ide. "* es-" with the double meaning "to be" and "true". This is also used to refer to German "is", French "être" (French "do it") and Latin "esse". ("Être est être vrais - c'est vrai parce que c'est.")

But how is this to be translated. While "biology" is translated as "the doctrine of life", "philology" means "love of the word". Accordingly, under "etymology" one could understand both the "doctrine of truth" and the "truth of a word" (in the sense of the "true, original meaning of a word").

The result is the latter meaning. "Etymology" is the "science of the true (original) meaning of a word". At least that was the concern of the ancient Greeks. Today's word research has given up this absolute claim.

The coining of the term "etymology" is attributed to the philosopher Chrysippos von Soloi (-280 Cilicia - -206 Athens), who wrote an eleven-volume work entitled "Peri ton etymologikon pros dioklea", and thus also the "etymology" on the methodical Discipline raised.

Dealing with etymology is in some ways similar to the children's popular question game. You can tirelessly repeat the question: "And why ...?" And each explanation leads to three new why questions.

It is exactly the same with the search for the origin of words and words. Here, too, one can always ask: "And where does this word come from?"

Pisani, Vittore notes in his work "The Etymology: History, Questions, Method" (p.14f):

With his "Kratylos", the Greek sophist Plato marked the beginning of an etymology which, based on pure empiricism, seeks to establish itself as a science. However, some of the Platonic attempts at derivation do not stand up to scientific scrutiny. In addition to good approaches, the ancient etymologists also caused a lot of speculations and misunderstandings. The very discussion as to whether a word naturally belongs to the thing it describes shows that there is still work to be done. Plato makes more static investigations. He does not yet have an eye on language development and word development.

Pisani, Vittore notes in his work "The Etymology: History, Questions, Method" (p.35):

We know the definition from Voltaire: Etymology is the science in which the vowels count for nothing and the consonants for little.



Lubarsky's Law of Cybernetic Entomology



"There is always one more bug."

Since I cannot escape this natural law either, I ask for feedback (to "Contact") if you discover any 'bug':

Spelling mistakes, wrong links and of course incorrect etymological explanations.

To the conception of the etymology portal

The etymology portal can be reached via the two addresses "www.etymologie.info" and "www.wortherkunft.de".

You can expect the following main topics:
  • 1) The dominant topic is "etymology", the "doctrine of the origin of the word". You will also find word stories, links to etymological offers on the internet and book recommendations.
  • 2) The second topic is "roses". You will also find word stories, links to rosy online offers and book recommendations.
  • 3) The third topic that is slowly gaining weight is "Math". You will also find word stories, links to mathematical offers on the Internet and book recommendations.
  • 4) The fourth topic is a non-topic. In the search for word stories, rose stories and mathematical explanations, I always end up on websites that I "have" to include in the etymology portal as general sources of information.
The etymology is the main topic of the "Etymology Portal", but don't be disappointed if you come across some interesting bits of knowledge about roses, mathematics and all kinds of human work.

A few words about the characters in the right and left navigation bars:

The program king

Who feels their fingers clammy at night?
It's the programmer with his program!
He gropes and gropes, he gropes quickly,
in the east the sky is already getting light.
His hair is gray, his hands are trembling
feed from the incessant core memory.
There - a whisper sounds from the core memory:
"Who is pecking at my base register?"
Just calm, just calm, you dear bits,
it was just a little joke.
My master, my master, look there
a sign creeps away up there.
Keep calm, keep calm my dear child
I'll get it back, for sure.
My master, my master, do you hear it rumble?
The wild bits frolic through the core memory.
Just calm, just calm, we'll have that in a moment,
We lock them in the buffer area.
He gropes and gropes like possessed,
Sch ... - now he has forgotten about SAVE'N.
The programmer cries out in great agony,
A ray of sun flashes through the window.
The screen shimmers in the dawn
the program died, the programmer - dead.

by B. Stutenz


This could also be modified for the homepage hobbyist.

Navigation note

The above alphabetical selection does not affect the complete word list of the Etymology Portal but only the current page - the one displayed in this frame.

For navigation on the left
  • To select certain countries or topics, please navigate in the left navigation area.
  • Please first select (in the upper area) "Country Sorting" or "Topic Sorting" and only then position it alphabetically.
  • The pages called up are then each assigned to a country and a topic. For example, the "UK Chemie" page contains English-language ("UK" and "United Kingdom") terms, links and book recommendations from the field of chemistry.
  • The pages are each displayed in the middle area.
  • A page can contain one to over a hundred entries. Depending on the availability of relevant information on "Country / Topic" and the effort required to create and classify the contributions.
  • In order to reach the finished content pages, please first select "Country sorting" or "Topic sorting" (in the upper area).
    Only then do you get to the several thousand content pages.


Navigate on the right
  • The contributions (on all pages of the Etymology Portal) are individually linked with a keyword.
  • To select a specific word or a contribution to a keyword, please navigate in the navigation area on the right.
  • There you will receive a longer alphabetical list for this initial letter with the letters (in the upper area).
  • with "1st letter" the corresponding navigation file is called up.
  • with "2nd letter" is positioned on the entries beginning with "1st letter, 2nd letter".
  • Then you have to scroll a bit to get to the entry you are looking for.


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A.

about.com
The Etymology of Words and Their Surprising Histories

(E?) (L?) Http://grammar.about.com/od/words/a/Etymologywords.htm

The Etymology of Words and Their Surprising Histories

The Surprising Origins of Everyday Words
...

What's the Difference Between a Definition and an Etymology?
...

Is the Etymology of a Word Its True Definition?
...

Where Do Words Come From?

New words have entered (and continue to enter) the English language in many different ways. Here are some of the most common methods.

  • Borrowing


  • The majority of the words used in modern English have been borrowed from other languages. Although most of our vocabulary comes from Latin and Greek (often by way of other European languages), English has borrowed words from more than 300 different languages ​​around the world. Here are just a few examples:

    futon (from the Japanese word for "bedclothes, bedding")

    gorilla (Greek Gorillai, a tribe of hairy women, perhaps of African origin)

    hamster (Middle High German hamastra)

    kangaroo (Aboriginal language of Guugu Yimidhirr, gangurru, referring to a species of kangaroo)

    kink (Dutch, "twist in a rope")

    moccasin (Native American Indian, Virginia Algonquian, akin to Powhatan mäkäsn and Ojibwa makisin)

    molasses (Portuguese melaços, from Late Latin mellceum, from Latin mel, "honey")

    muscle (Latin musculus, "mouse")

    slogan (alteration of Scots slogorne, "battle cry")

    smorgasbord (Swedish, literally "bread and butter table")

    whiskey (Old Irish uisce, "water," and bethad, "of life")

  • Clipping or shortening


  • Some new words are simply shortened forms of existing words, for instance indie from independent; exam from examination; flu from influenza, and fax from facsimile.

  • Compounding


  • A new word may also be created by combining two or more existing words: fire engine, for example, and babysitter.

  • Blends


  • A blend, also called a portmanteau word, is a word formed by merging the sounds and meanings of two or more other words. Examples include moped, from mo (tor) + ped (al), and brunch, from br (eakfast) + (l) unch.

  • Conversion or functional shift


  • New words are often formed by changing an existing word from one part of speech to another. For example, innovations in technology have encouraged the transformation of the nouns network, Google, and microwave into verbs.

  • Transfer of proper nouns


  • Sometimes the names of people, places, and things become generalized vocabulary words. For instance, the noun maverick was derived from the name of an American cattleman, Samuel Augustus Maverick. The saxophone was named after Sax, the surname of a 19th-century Belgian family that made musical instruments.

  • Neologisms or Creative Coinages


  • Now and then, new products or processes inspire the creation of entirely new words. Such neologisms are usually short lived, never even making it into a dictionary. Nevertheless, some have endured, for example quark (coined by novelist James Joyce), galumph (Lewis Carroll), aspirin (originally a trademark), grok (Robert A. Heinlein).

  • Imitation of sounds


  • Words are also created by onomatopoeia, naming things by imitating the sounds that are associated with them: boo, bow-wow, tinkle, click.


Why Should We Care About Word Histories?

...


Created: 2019-03

ahdictionary.com
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.ahdictionary.com/word/search.html?q=etymology

"etymology"

n. pl. etymologies
  • 1. The origin and historical development of a linguistic form as shown by determining its basic elements, earliest known use, and changes in form and meaning, tracing its transmission from one language to another, identifying its cognates in other languages, and reconstructing its ancestral form where possible.
  • 2. The branch of linguistics that deals with etymologies.
[Middle English "etimologie", from Old French "ethimologie", from Medieval Latin "ethimologia", from Latin "etymologia", from Greek "etumologia": "etumon", "true sense of a word"; see "ETYMON" + "-logia", "-logy".]

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright © 2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


Created: 2019-03

alphadictionary.com
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/date/2008/12/04

Meaning: The history of words or the linguistic study of that history; the branch of linguistics dealing with the origins and historical development of words. (The same as our 'Word History' below.)

Notes: Today's Good Word is used widely in linguistics, especially historical linguistics, the study of the historical development of languages. A person who studies "etymology" is an "etymologist" who carries out etymological studies, etymologically speaking, that is.

In Play: We will see an actual etymology like this one in the next section. "If we study the etymology of" pilgrim ", we find out that English borrowed it from Old French" peligrin ", which developed over time from Latin" peregrinus "=" foreign "," strange ". Don't read too much into the etymology of words, though, as did the person who uttered this: "Well, words may not tell us much about people but the etymology of Will Doolittle's name tells us a lot about him."

Word History: Today's Good Word was taken over from Latin "etymologia" with only the usual minor adjustment. Latin borrowed the word from Greek "etymologia" with no change (except alphabets). The Greek word is made up of "etymon" = "a word's true meaning" + "log-" = "word", "idea" + "-ia", a noun suffix. "Etymon" is the new form of the adjective "etymos" = "true", used as a noun. The root of "logos" is that fascinating Proto-Indo-European root "leg-" / "log-" which gave us Latin "lex", "legis" = "law" and Greek "logos" = "speech", " word "," idea ". The Greek root also gave us "lexicon", "lexical", and "Lexiteria", our former parent company. The best guess as to how the meanings "word" and "law" crossed paths is that this root goes back to the day when a king's word was the law. (Even though the etymology of Jackie "Strauss" 's last name leads to the German word for "ostrich", she certainly doesn't bury her head in the sand or she would miss Good Words like this one.)


Created: 2020-03

andreas-john.com
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://andreas-john.com/Etymologie.htm

"Etymology", history of the development of a word, d. H.its changes in sound form and meaning, preferably in those periods of time that have not yet been illuminated by continuous written tradition. The etymology combines the words into etymologically related types of words and opens up the common basis for them (stem, base, root); it works out the regularities of the sound development (sound laws) and must trace the change in meaning of the words.


Created: 2019-04

aphorismen.de
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.aphorismen.de/lexikon/begriff/6/Etymologie

etymology

[Greco-Latin] examines the direction of comparative linguistics, the origin, basic meaning and historical development of words as well as their relationship to words of the same origin.

Even in ancient Greece, considerations were made about sound symbolism. Greek philosophers tried to understand the words as compositions of simpler, phonetically related basic words. In this way it was believed that one also learned something about the nature of the things designated. The ancient grammarians used the thesis of arbitrary sound growth or sound loss, sound change or sound rearrangement to discover the origin of the words.

The most important etymological work of the Middle Ages is Isidore von Seville's "Etymologiae". Modern scientific etymology begins with F.A. Potts "Etymological Research in the Field of the Indo-Germanic Languages" (1833-1836), which examined the historical processes of word formation. Research into cultural history is increasingly being included, such as the time and circumstances of word formation as well as causes of divergent uses and legal changes in the sound form of a word. In the case of words from prehistoric times, etymology usually has to be content with proving that they exist in the same form in related languages.

"Inner etymology" is possible within the word families of a language ("sick": "addiction"), "outer etymology" compares the words of related languages, e.g. "room" to Greek "demo" "I build". (Folk etymology)


Created: 2019-03

archive.org
Pokorny - Indo-European etymological dictionary

(E?) (L?) Https://archive.org/details/indogermanisches01pokouoft/page/2

Indo-European Etymological Dictionary by Pokorny, Julius, 1887


Created: 2019-03

atilf.fr
ETYMOLOGY

(E?) (L?) Http://www.atilf.fr/dmf/definition/étymologie

FEW III "etymologia"

"ETYMOLOGY", subst. fém. [T-L: "etimology"; GD: "ethimology"; GDC: "etymology"; AND: "ethimology"; FEW III, 248b: "etymologia"; TLF VIII, 310a: "étymologie"]

"Interprétation d'un mot, réalité qu'il recouvre": Cist nom pres s'antr'acordent, rossignoz, Rossillons; De teux ethymologies pas ne nous mervillons, Et li autre en redïent autre raison et cause; Tant chiés, tantes sentences, chacuns en dit sa clause. (Gir. Ross. H., c.1334, 124). Par ethymologie puet l'om dire Pautieres, Quar en yver y a trop grant foison de pautes (Gir. Ross. H., c.1334, 124). Nous trouvons en notre histoire pluseurs opinions de ceste éthymologie, c'est assavoir de Roussillon, dont la première est telle: Rousillon, comme serves aucuns, est un nom composé de ro et de sillon, laquelle syllabe ro vault autant à dire comme maistre en langaige romain, et sillon vient de Scilla ou Sillons, jadiz un tres grant conseillier des Roumains (WAUQUELIN, Gir. Ross. M., 1447, 59). Ceste diffinition se prend selon l'ethymologie, c'est a dire l'interpretation de la diction et du mot, car personne selon l'interpretation du nom vault a dire comme chose par soy une. (Somme abr., C.1477-1481, 130). Misericorde se dist en trois manieres selon l'ethimologie, c'est a dire selon l'interpretation. Premierement misericorde est interpretee come partissant ou dividant la misere du cuer (Somme abr., C.1477-1481, 178).

Au plur. [Titre de l'ouvrage d'Isidore de Séville]: ... les langages furent diviséz en la construction et l'edifiement de la tour de Babiloine, comme raconte Ysidore en son .IX. livre de Ethimologies. (LEGRAND, Archil. Sophie B., c.1400, 58). Et, a ce propos, diray ore Ce que nous en dit Ysidore, En son premier livre acceptable D'Ethimologies notable (CHR. PIZ., M.F., II, 1400-1403, 125). Et aussy ad ce tesmoingne Ysodore, et en son VIIIe livre des Ethimologies (...) que generalment toutes femmes prophetes, selon la langue de Grece, sont appellees Sibilles (LA SALE, Salade, c.1442-1444, 125).


Created: 2020-03

B.

behindthename.com
Etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.behindthename.com/glossary/view/etymology

"Etymology" is the study of the origins of words. The etymology of a word is its linguistic history.

For example, the word "etymology" comes to us from the Ancient Greek language. It is composed of two parts: the Greek word "etymon", which means "the true sense of a word", combined with the Greek element "logia", which means "doctrine", "study". Combining these two parts gives us "the study of the true sense of words", which can be said to be the "meaning" of the word "etymology".
The etymology of names is the study of the origin and literal meaning of names.


Created: 2019-03

blueprints.de
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.blueprints.de/wortschatz/von-ei-des-kolumbus-bis-filibuster/etymologie.html

"Etymology" (Greek), "Etymology" is the study of the true origin of a word. It is a branch of linguistics that seeks to explain the basic meaning and development of words. The basic word or root word is called "Etymon".


Created: 2019-04

Brockhaus
Small conversation lexicon
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.digitale-bibliothek.de/band50.htm

"Etymology" (Greek), the study of the derivation of words.


Created: 2019-04

C.

christianlehmann.eu
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.christianlehmann.eu/ling/wandel/etymologie.php

9.4. etymology

1. Position of the etymology
...
2. Purpose of the etymology

Etymology (from the Greek étymos “really, true, genuine”) is the indication of the origin, more precisely the reconstruction of the original assignment of significans and significatum on which a word (or another significant unit) is based. An original Significans and an original Significatum are reconstructed and, if necessary, a motivation for their assignment is given. In the simplest case, the latter consists of a word formation rule. E.g. ahd. Hano goes back to germ. * Han-an, which is a noun agentis, which is derived from * han- “to sing” by suffixing as nhd. Kräh-er is derived from kräh (en).

The goal of etymology is multiple. Every single etymology teaches us something about the inner structure of the meaning of an expression and can thus have an effect on the use of language. It can also clarify terms and things from previous stages of a culture. Together, the etymologies are building blocks for the reconstruction of all properties of a language system that are connected with the morpheme or lexeme; and that is most of them. Every etymology consolidates or falsifies the beginning of a phonetic system, offers an example of a word formation rule or completes a word field. The approach of phonological, morphological and lexical systems in original languages ​​does not take place in abstracto, but depends entirely on the fact that there are sufficiently many etymologies about which it represents an inductive generalization. Of course, every single etymology presupposes precisely those phonological and morphological laws; we will come back to that in a moment.

3. Method of etymology
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4. Literature
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(E?) (L?) Https://www.christianlehmann.eu/ling/gesch_sw/Platon_Kratylos.html

...
According to modern scientific understanding, "etymology" is a historical discipline. Plato has - with one exception in §418, where he invokes word forms that were used by "the ancients" [without again having historical evidence for this] - no concept of language change. Consequently, he lacks the prerequisites to do scientific etymology. For him, etymology is a kind of association theory. However, the criteria for the coherence or relevance of the associations are missing. Etymology only became a scientific discipline when the aforementioned requirements were met; that was with the beginning of historical-comparative linguistics around 1800.

From today's perspective, the cautious attitude of Socrates (/ Plato) to the issue is appropriate. Even if it is properly specified and specified in your scope, it is obviously not a yes-no question. Instead of the Platonic aporia at the end of "Kratylos", a cautious "both - and" is used today.

Incidentally, the two-function model of language is also laid out in Plato's "Kratylos".


Created: 2019-04

cnrtl.fr
ETYMOLOGY

(E?) (L?) Http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/étymologie

Etymology, subst. fém.

Etymol. et Hist. 1. Ca 1175 "le livre d'Isidore de Séville intitulé Etymologiae" (Benoit, Chron. Des Ducs de Normandie, éd. C. Fahlin, 500 et 904); 2. 1188 (Aimont de Varennes, Florimont, éd. A. Hilka, 9212). Empr. au lat. class. "etymologia" "étymologie", lui-même empr. au gr. e? t? µ? ? ? ? ? 'A' id. », Composé de e ´ t? µ? ? «Vrai» et de l'élément -? ? ? ? a (cf. -logie), significant proprement «recherche du vrai». Cf. pour les details de l'évolution tant lat. que fr. P. Zumthor ds Mél. Wartburg 1958, pp. 873-893.

Mise à jour de la notice étymologique par le program de recherche TLF-Étym:

History:

0. “unité lexicale à l'origine d'une autre unité lexicale” (linguistique). Attesté depuis 1756 (Encyclopédie, volume 6 page 98a, article étymologie rédigé par Turgot: on donne quelque fois au primitif même le nom d'étymologie; ainsi l'on dit que pater est l'étymologie de père). Par la suite, on relève une seconde attestation en 1826 (Dictionnaire sciences naturelles, volume 40, page 203 in GoogleLivres: Picrotoxine signifie amer; son étymologie est p ??? et t ???). Dès la fin du 19e siècle, les linguistes préféreront le terme étymon à celui d'étymologie pour denoter cette réalité; de nos jours, ce dernier est encore utilisé dans le langage non scientifique (cf. Zumthor, MélWartburg 1). -

B. “rapport de filiation établi à propos d'un mot donné et expliquant sa constitution” (linguistique). Attesté depuis 1529 (Budé, Livre de Asse, fo 8 ro in GoogleLivres: Et pour ceste cause ont este imposes ces deux noms ou vocables. Car sesterce vault autant a dire par interpretation & etymologie, que le troisiesme demy. Cest a dire deux entiers , & vingt demy. Touteffois les Rommains quant ilz vouloient designer mille petis sesterces ne disoient pas sestertius ou singulier nombre). Remarque: bien antérieurement, on relève deux attestations sans rapport avec la tradition moderne. La première apparaît en 1175 (BenDucF, vers 904: Gimeges, ceo ert riche abeie; Si trois en l'ethimologie Que par les granz gemissemenz Des mals e des trespassemenz Que l'on aveit fait d'en ariere - E iloc ert l ' on em preiere Que Dex en feïst veir pardon - Aveit por ce Jemeges non). La deuxième se trouve dans le Roman de Florimont, composé en 1188, dans une supposée anagrams sur le prénom de l'auteur Aymes / Aimon (de Varennes), qui livre son propre nom dans son ouvrage (AimonFlH, page 361, vers 9212: A siaus qui sevent de clergie Contet per ethymelogie Que por s'amie Vialine Traist de greu l'istore latine, Et del latin fist le romans Aymes, que fut loials amans). En ce qui concerne les premières attestations du début du 16e siècle, elles sont essentiellement utilisées dans des contextes qui font reférence aux œuvres de Cicéron ou dans des traductions d'ouvrages de ce dernier (cf. ci-dessus; 1541, Colin, Trois livres loix Cicéron, fo 88 vo in GoogleLivres), et il faudra attendre 1562 pour voir le terme utilisé indépendemment dans Hervet, Brief discours, page 34: Mais vous verrez que ce nom de Confesseur leur conviendra encores mieux, si l'etymologie du mot est françoyse. -

A. «science qui a pour objet la recherche de l'origine des mots en suivant leur évolution à partir de l'état le plus anciennement attesté» (linguistique). Attesté depuis 1756 (Encyclopédie, article étymologie, page 16: Aujourd'hui les Savans donnent ce nom [étymologie] à toutes les recherches sur l'origine des mots; et c'est dans ce sens que nous l'employerons dans cet article) . Contrairement à Pfister, Introduzione qui atteste ce sens depuis 1690 dans Furetière1, ce sens n'est relevé qu'à partir de 1755. L'étymologie a longtemps été qualifiée d'art et non de science. En 1829, on trouve encore sous l'entrée étymologie de Roquefort, Dictionnaire étymologique la définition suivante: Etymologie, art de débrouiller ce qui déguise les mots, de les dépouiller de ce qui leur est étranger, et de les ramener 'à la simplicit ils avoient dans l'origine. Il faut attendre 1836 pour voir le terme défini comme une science dans l'ouvrage de Latouche, Clef de l'Étymologie, page 98, in GoogleLivres: Combien d'auteurs téméraires, plus doctes que spirituels, plus spirituels que sensés, ont compromis l 'etymology! Ils ont oublié que toute science a un (sic) ame et un corps, son matériel et sa philosophie). -

Origine:

0./B./A. Transfert linguistique: emprunt au latin etymologia subst. fém. "Origines", d'après le titre de l'ouvrage majeur d'Isidore de Séville (560 / 70–636) Etymologiae cité dans BenDucF (cf. ci-dessus B.). Le terme est attesté dès Varron dans son ouvrage qui fut longtemps une référence pour les grammairiens latins (Varron, De lingua latina, TLL 6, 980b). En français, le terme est d'abord lié à la rhetorique et à la philosophie (cf. Zumthor, MélWartburg 1) avant de se spécialiser dans la terminologie linguistique. L'article étymologie attribué à Turgot dans l'Encyclopédie marque un tournant dans l'histoire de la science étymologique, car il y est proposé une terminologie propre à cette dernière, même si l'on parle encore d'art étymologique et non de science . Dès la première moitié du 20e siècle, les travaux de Gilliéron et de Baldinger (cf. Baldinger, fascination), ont démontré la nécessité de mettre en évidence tout le parcours historique d'un mot grâce à une étymologie-histoire, et de ne plus se contenter d'une étymologie-origine. À ajouter FEW 3, 248b, etymologia (cf. ci-dessus 0. et A.).

Rédaction TLF 1980: Équipe diachronique du TLF. - Mise à jour 2010: Laure Budzinski .. - Relecture mise à jour 2010: Xavier Gouvert; Yan Greub; Éva Buchi; Nadine Steinfeld; May Plouzeau.Première mise en ligne: 29 June 2010. - Dernière revision: 13 September 2010. - Mise en ligne: 24 November 2010.


Created: 2019-03

collinsdictionary.com
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/etymology

etymology


Created: 2019-03

cultureelwoordenboek.nl
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.cultureelwoordenboek.nl/taalwetenschap/etymologie

Empty van de herkomst van woorden. Onze woorden zijn vaak sterk changes in front of van veel oudere woorden, soms ook uit other talen. Zo gaat "ooi" terug op dezelfde Indo-europese grondvorm as het Griekse "ois" ("schaap"), maar is het woord "suiker" met de zoetstof meegekomen uit het oude India, waar het "sarkara" heette. Etymology serves zowel het vaststellen van Verwantschap tussen talen as het reconstrueren van de (oude) geschiedenis, bijvoorbeeld handelsbetrekkingen: Waar woorden have been overgenomen must always be in contact. Tot het begin van de negentiende eeuw kwam aan de wetenschappelijke etymology sea fantasy dan onderzoek te pas. A notorious voorbeeld is de Nederlander Goropius Becanus (1518-1572), the 'aantoonde' dat het Nederlands de taal van Adam en Eva geweest zijn. Even fantastic is the "folk etymology": the biedt vaak fraie, maar tinned declare van placard names.


Created: 2020-03

D.

Ladies Conversations Lexicon
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.digitale-bibliothek.de/band118.htm

"Etymology", that part of grammar which deals with the origin of words and their meanings determined according to them.


Created: 2019-04

dbnl.org
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.dbnl.org/tekst/bork001lett01_01/bork001lett01_01_0006.php#e130

"etymology"

Term voor zowel de oorsprong en divorceis van een woord as voor het onderzoek daarnaar. In de Middeleeuwen en de renaissance a soort ‘natuurlijke band’ aangenomen tussen a woord en zijn betekenis. Door te speuren naar de oorsprong van de woorden meende men ook het wezen van de benoemde things te kunnen grijpen:

Which de werelt first
Hine what al in dole niet:
Hij gaf hare bina right name;
Want both mesdaet van Adame,
Because hi Gode omme promised
Entie werelt al confused,
So it hare the name comen.

(Jacob van Maerlant. Spiegel Historiael, 1e partie, 1e boek, ed. De Vries en Verwijs, dl.1, 1863, p. 15, vss. 1-8).

Johannes Goropius Becanus ‘bewees’ in zijn Origines Antwerpianae (1569) dat het Nederlands de oudste taal ter wereld was: "Duyts" - "Douts" = "de oudste", dus spoken in het paradijs door "Adam" - "aardman".

As a wetenschap, the "etymology" pas genuinely dead ontplooiing by de ontwikkeling van de historical klankleer in de 19e eeuw; door de systematic vergelijking van talen en de study van oude teksten kwam men de zogenaamde klankwetten op het spoor, waardoor steeds oudere, onderliggende form van woorden can be reconstructed. Het zoeken naar de oorspronkelijke betekenis is herebij van secundair concern.

De onderzoeksresultaten van de etymologie zijn vastlegerd in de zogenaamde etymologische woordenboeken.

Before het Nederlands is that Franck's "Etymological woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal" (2nd dr. Door N. van Wijk, 1912), that in 1936 was given by a supplement by C.B. van Haeringen. The woordenboek heeft as roepnaam ‘Franck-Van Wijk-Van Haeringen’ en is in 1949 and in 1971, including the supplement, ongewijzigd herdrukt (een reprint verscheen in 1980).

Van recenter datum zijn J. de Vries' "Etymologically woordenboek. Waar komen our woorden vandaan?" (197912) en Nicoline van der Sijs' "Etymologische woordenboek" (1997), een working van dat van P.A.F. van Veen uit 1989.

Verwant met de "etymologie" is de "folk etymology", waarbij vreemde of onbegrepen gebippen zo vervormd, dat ze gaan lijken op bekende woorden met a related betekenis. A voorbeeld hiervan is de "zegswijze" ‘(someone) van haver tot gort (know)’. Oorspronkelijk was de uitdrukking ‘van aver tot aver’ (aver = child, nakomeling). Toen het woord ‘aver’ in onbruik raakte, is de uitdrukking door folk etymology changed via ‘van haver tot haver’ in ‘van haver tot gort’.

LIT: Bantel; Brongers; Dupriez-1; Dupriez-2; Gorp; HWR; Marouzeau; Scott; Shipley; Wilpert. [W. Kuiper / P.J. Verkruijsse]


Created: 2020-03

Dict CC
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.dict.cc/?s=etymology

  • ling. etymology - word origin {f}
  • acad. ling. etymology
  • ling. etymology - origin
  • ling. etymology - origin of a word
  • ling. folk etymology - Eineutung {f} [folk etymology]
  • ling. folk etymology
  • ling. folk etymology - paretymology {f}
  • ling. folk etymology
  • ling. popular etymology
  • ling. pseudo-etymology [folk etymology] - Volksetymologie {f}
  • ling. dictionary of etymology
  • ling. dictionary of etymology´- dictionary of origin {n}



Created: 2019-03

dictionary.com
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.dictionary.com/browse/etymology

"etymology", noun, plural "etymologies".

the derivation of a word.

a chronological account of the birth and development of a particular word or element of a word, often delineating its spread from one language to another and its evolving changes in form and meaning.

the study of historical linguistic change, especially as manifested in individual words.


Created: 2019-03

dizionario.org
Etimologia

(E?) (L?) Http://www.dizionario.org/d/index.php?pageurl=etimologia&searchfor=etimologia&searching=true

Etimologia


Created: 2019-03

duden.de
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/Etymologie

etymology
  • Science of the origin and history of words and their meanings
  • Origin and history of a word and its meaning
...
Origin: Latin "etymologia", Greek "etymología", actually = "investigation of the true (original) meaning of a word", to: "étymon" ("etymon") and "lógos", "logos"
...


Created: 2019-03

dwds.de
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.dwds.de/wb/Etymologie

"Etymology" f. "The study of the origin and development of words", "historical-comparative word research", also "formal and semantic derivation of a word from its oldest achievable preliminary stage". Greek "etymología", Latin "etymologia" "Explanation of the words from their root word", "Doctrine of the word derivation" is used in the 20s of the 16th century. Adopted into German (early "etymologei", "ethimologey"), but Latin form and inflection remained predominant in the 17th century. The Greek-Latin Noun, like the other representatives of this word family, has the Greek "étymos" as the first compositional member, "true", "truthful", a subsidiary form of equal. Greek "eteós", on (for the second term see "-logie"), is therefore (in accordance with the view still widespread in the Middle Ages that knowledge of the original meaning of the word could lead to knowledge about the essence of the thing referred to) Doctrine of the True Meaning of Words "to understand.

Greek "tó étymon" "the true sense of a word", "the underlying root word", the substantiated neuter of the adjective Greek "étymos", has also been used as a linguistic term "etymon" n. "in German texts since the 17th century. original word form "used, mostly by comparing related words in different languages ​​according to phonetic law".

"Etymologe" m. "Scientists active in the field of historical-comparative word research" (18th century), after Greek-Latin. "etymologos" "who practices etymology"; initially also "Etymologist" (18th century, probably influenced by the French "étymologiste").

"etymological" adj. "concerning the etymology" (17th century), in connection with equiv. Greek "etymologikós", Latin "etymologicus".


Created: 2019-04

E.

enacademic.com
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://etymology.enacademic.com/14510

"etymology" (n.) late 14c., "ethimolegia" = "facts of the origin and development of a word", from O.Fr. "ethimologie", "etimologie" (14c., Mod.Fr. "étymologie"), from L. "etymologia", from Gk. "etymologia", properly "study of the true sense (of a word)", from "etymon" = "true sense" (neuter of "etymos" = "true", "real", "actual", related to "eteos "=" true ") +" -logia "=" study of "," a speaking of "(see" -LOGY "(cf." -logy ")). In classical times, of meanings; later, of histories. Latinized by Cicero as "veriloquium". As a branch of linguistic science, from 1640s. Related: "Etymological"; "etymologically".


(E?) (L?) Https://usage_en.enacademic.com/1562

1. "Etymology" is the study of the history and derivation of words, and an etymology is the history of a particular word. Most dictionaries of concise size and larger give detailed accounts of a word's sources, which can be from other English words (e.g. "newspaper") or from other languages ​​(e.g. "kiosk" via French from Persian). Some words borrowed from other languages ​​have been assimilated to English-looking forms; for example Spanish "cucaracha" has given us "cockroach" by assimilation with the English words "cock" and "roach" (see assimilation).

2. The vast majority of English words (apart from those made from existing English words) are derived from Old English (Anglo-Saxon), from Norse languages, or from a late form of Latin via French words that came into English after the Norman Conquest in 1066.

A succinct account of the main sources of English words is given in the Concise Oxford Dictionary (1995), ix-xii, to which the reader is referred for further information. It is disappointing for many people that the origins of some quite familiar and important words remain obscure or unknown. The histories of "boy" and "girl" are unknown before Middle English, "dog" has no identified Germanic cognates, many informal or slang words, such as "bamboozle", "caboodle", "cagey", "clobber", " gimmick "," jiff ", and" posh ", have no verified origins, despite spurious claims made for some of them (such as the supposed" port outward starboard home "origin of" posh "), and some words that appear to be made up of distinctive elements, for example "contraption" and "theodolite", are also doubtful or unknown in origin.

3. Certain words, possibly including some of those in the last paragraph, are onomatopoeic, i.e. they represent a sound with which their meanings are associated, such as "clang", "plonk", and "thwack"; and a few words that are obviously less connected with sounds, such as "blizzard" and "jumble", also belong to this class.

4. The word "etymology" itself comes from a Greek word "etymon" meaning "true". However, the etymology of a word represents its original meaning rather than its true meaning in any judgmental sense. Appeals to etymology to defend the use of words against change in meaning (as for example with decimate), though commonly made, are usually futile, since few words in the core vocabulary of English now mean what they used to mean, as the complex history of nice demonstrates.


(E?) (L?) Https://enacademic.com/dic.nsf/cide/61214

"Etymology", n .; pl. {"Etymologies"}. [L. "etymologia", Gr. "etymologìa"; "etymon" + "lògos" "discourse", "description": cf. F. "etymologie". See "Etymon", and "-logy".]

1. That branch of philological science which treats of the history of words, tracing out their origin, primitive significance, and changes of form and meaning. [1913 Webster]

2. That part of grammar which relates to the changes in the form of the words in a language; inflection. [1913 Webster]


(E?) (L?) Https://world_en.enacademic.com/24990

"etymology", n., pl. "etymologies" [ME & OFr "ethimologie", L. "etymologia", Gr. see "ETYMON" & "-LOGY"]

1. the origin and development of a word, affix, phrase, etc .; the tracing of a word or other form back as far as possible in its own language and to its source in contemporary or earlier languages: in this dictionary etymologies are given in doubled brackets preceding the senses to which they apply

2. the branch of linguistics dealing with word origin and development


(E?) (L?) Https://universalium.enacademic.com/111481

"etymology"
  • 1. the derivation of a word.
  • 2. an account of the history of a particular word or element of a word.
  • 3. the study of historical linguistic change, esp. as manifested in individual words.
[1350-1400; ME, L. "etymologia", Gk. "etymología", equiv. "to etymológ (os)" studying the true meanings and values ​​of words ("étymo (s)" = "true" (see "ETYMON") + "lógos" = "word", "reason") + "-ia" ]

the history of a word or word element, including its origins and derivation. Although the etymologizing of proper names appears in the Old Testament and Plato dealt with etymology in his dialogue Cratylus, lack of knowledge of other languages ​​and of the historical developments that languages ​​undergo prevented ancient writers from arriving at the proper etymologies of words.

Modern scientific etymological study is based on the methods and findings of historical and comparative linguistics, the basic principles of which were established by linguists during the 19th century. The general principles involved in present-day etymology are:
  • 1. The earliest form of a word, or word element, must be ascertained, as well as all parallel and related forms.
  • 2. Every sound of a given word, or word element, must be compared with the corresponding sound in the form (often called its etymon) from which it is derived.
  • 3. Any deviation in the previously established phonetic correspondences for the language of which the word is a part must be plausibly and rationally explained.
  • 4. Any shift in meaning that has occurred in the historical transmission of the word must also be explained.
  • 5. Words that present nonnative sounds, or combinations of sounds, that appear isolated in the language, or that demonstrate marked deviation from the usual phonetic correspondences, are probably borrowed rather than inherited, and the language of origin must be determined.



(E?) (L?) Https://word_origins.enacademic.com/2565

The underlying meaning of "etymology" is "finding the underlying or true meaning of words". Its ultimate source is Greek "étumos" = "real", "true". From this was derived "étumon" = "true or literal sense of a word" (acquired by English in the 16th century as "etymon"). Postclassical grammarians came to use this in the sense "root from which a particular word was derived", as a result of which modern "etymology", "the study of etymons", deals with their history rather than their meaning.


Created: 2020-03

encyclo.nl
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.encyclo.nl/lokaal/10110

Onder etymologie nationalized men de oorsprong en de geschiedenis van woorden, alsook de tak van de taalwetenschap die zich met de herkomst van woorden bezighoudt.


Created: 2020-03

etymologiebank.nl
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.etymologiebank.nl/trefwoord/etymologie

"etymology" (study van de herkomst der woorden)

Etymological (standaard) works

M. Philippa, F. Debrabandere, A. Quak, T. Schoonheim and N. van der Sijs (2003-2009) Etymologically Woordenboek van het Nederlands, 4 delen, Amsterdam

"etymology" zn. "study van de herkomst der woorden"

Vnnl. "etymologie" [1521; Sijs 2001], "etymologie" "woordafleiding" [1548; WNT behave].

Misschien via Oudfrans "ethimologie" [1170-90; Rey], maar eerder direct ontleend aan Latijn "etymologia", Grieks "etumología", gevormd uit "étumo-" "het ware (van een woord)" (eigenlijk het individually structured "étumos" "waar", van onbekende originates). Voor het achtervoegsel zie - "-logie". De oorspr. betekenis is dus "het zoeken naar de waarheid in de woorden".

De oude Grieken complains de herkomst van de woorden op filologische wijze. In feite bleef de etymologie eigenlijk nog tot de 19e eeuw een ‘pseudo-wetenschap’, waarbij men alleen een ‘formula of ideële relatie’ tussen de woorden probeerde te vinden. Men probeerde de woorden te verklaren door willekeurige ideeënassociaties, letteromzettingen en lettertoevoegingen en aan de hand van klankymbolische overwegingen.

A pioneer op het gebied van de wetenschappelijke etymologie in de 16e eeuw was Cornelis Kiliaan (Cornelis van Kiel), who published in 1599 zijn "Etymologicum teutonicae linguae", was hij woordverklaringen gaf en het Brabants met other dialects vergeleek.

In the 18e eeuw publiceerde de Amsterdamse taalkundige Lambert ten Kate het work "Aenleiding tot de kennisse van het gehvene deel der Nederduitse sprake" (1723), dat een grondslag vormde voor een real wetenschappelijke etymologie.

Pas in de 19e eeuw de etymologie door het bekend van het Sanskrit en daarmee het inzicht in de Indo-Europese Verwantschap van veel woorden een volwaardige wetenschap. Deze wetenschap kon zich nu gaan bezighouden met het vergelijken van de Indo-Europese talen, waardoor de etymologie eingelijk een degelijke onderbouwing kreeg. De neogrammatici die later de klankwetten opstelden en de ablaut ontdekten, hielden zich vooral bezig met de study van de wortels van de woorden. De tegenwoordige etymologie probert, voor zover mogelijk, de geschiedenis van vorm en betekenis van woorden te achterhalen.

P.A.F. van Veen en N. van der Sijs (1997), Etymological woordenboek: de herkomst van onze woorden, 2e druk, Van Dale Lexicografie, Utrecht / Antwerp

"etymologie" [woordafleidkunde] {1521} - frans "étymologie" - latijn "etymologia" - grieks "etumologia" [idem], van "etumon" ["de wortel van een woord"], own. het zelfstandig gebruikt o. van "etumos" ["werkelijk waar"] + "logos" ["woord", "verhandeling"], "etumotès" ["woordafleiding"]; in de Oudheid probeerde men door (tamelijk willekeurige) change of verplaatsingen van letters van een woord connected with other woorden te leggen, waardoor de oorspronkelijke of ware betekenis van het woord zou blijken.

J. de Vries (1971), Netherlands Etymological Woordenboek, Leiden

"etymology" znw. v. first na Kiliaen, see nhd. "etymologie" (1520 bij Paracelsus) - lat. "etymologia" - gr. "etumología" "aanwijzing van de oorsprong van een woord", gevormd uit "étumos" "waar" en "lógos" "woord".

Dialect woordenboeken en woordenboeken van variëteiten van het Nederlands

G.J. van Wyk (2003), Etimologiewoordeboek van Afrikaans, Stellenbosch

"etimology" s.nw.

Geskiedenis van 'n woord met aanduiding van sy oorsprong en ontwikkeling in vorm en betekenis.

Uit Ndl. Etymology (1522).

"Etymologie" uit Fr. "étymologie" uit Latyn "etymologia" uit Bisantyns-Grieks "etumologie", met lg. uit "etumon" "wortel van 'n woord" (eintlik die selfst. gebruik van "etumos" "werklik waar") en "logos" "woord", "negotiating"; see Grieks "etumotès" "woordafleiding".

Cf. die betekenisontwikkeling: (sedert 19de eeu) "(wetenskap rakende) geskiedenis van woorde in vorm en bet. En hul verwantskap", uit (17de eeu) "toespitsing op ondersoek van historiese oorsprong", uit (16de eeu) "formele of ideële verwantskap tussen twee woorde ", uit die tyd (Middeleeue) toe die waarheid allegories deur die etimologie voorgestel word, uit" soeke van die ware, die waarheid van sake, te wete in en deur die woorde ".

Uitleenwoordenboeken

N. van der Sijs (2010), Nederlandse woorden wereldwijd, The Hague; met aanvullingen uit Uitleenwoordenbank 2015

"etymologie" "woordafleidkunde" -> Indonesian "étimologi" "woordafleidkunde".

Dateringen of neologisms

N. van der Sijs (2001), Chronological woordenboek: de ouderdom en herkomst van onze woorden en betekenissen, Amsterdam

"etymologie" "woordafleidkunde" 1521 [Mak] - Frans

Overige works

Woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal (WNT) & Middelnederlandsch woordenboek (MNW) & Vroegmiddelnederlands woordenboek (VMNW) & Oudnederlands woordenboek (ONW) - all onderdeel van de Geïntegreerde Taalbank (GTB)

Zoek dit woord op in het WNT, MNW, VMNW, ONW.


Created: 2019-03

etymology.de
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.etymology.de/

"Etymology" (Latin "etymologia", it. "Etimologia", English "etymology", French "étymologie", Russian "etimologija", bg. "Etimologija") is the investigation according to the linguistic dictionary of Theodor Lewandowski the origin and development of the words, the exploration of their origin and their basic meaning with regard to their motivation.

According to Saussure, "etymology" follows the prehistory of the words until it comes across something that serves to explain it; it traces the history of word families as well as that of educational elements (prefixes, suffixes, etc.).

According to Seebold, the systematic educational elements have no "history", but words as relatively context-free lexicalized units that belong to the vocabulary of the language; with them one can speak of tradition. The origin and history of the words can be theoretically differentiated, but practically they cannot be separated from each other, so that word origin and word history must be viewed as two sub-areas of "etymology".

The task of etymology is to describe the history of word formation and to shed light on the individual history of individual words, which often turns out to be very complicated. Methodologically, historical phonetics and forms as well as the respective synchronous state of language, the socio-cultural background and the relevant factual reference as well as the causality of changes must be taken into account so that hypotheses can be formulated with a satisfactory probability content. The more recent research focuses on the semantic side (naming motifs) and the conditions of use, the educational mechanisms, the lexicalization and the further development also with regard to formal characteristics.

For the scientific etymology (after A. F. Pott, 1833) the recognition of the historical dimension in the word formation (cf. change of meaning) as well as the discovery of phonetic laws in the context of the historical-comparative linguistics was fundamental. Only then did it become possible to push back the discredited speculative etymologizing (cf. "Folk Etymology"). Pott has also seen that it is not a question of finding archetypes with archetypal meanings. In recent etymological research, sociological and cultural-historical criteria are taken into account alongside semantic-lexical and comparative criteria.

For further reading:
  • Malkiel, Y. (1954/55): Etymology and historical grammar. Romance philology 8.
  • Pisani, V. (1975): The Etymology. History, questions, method.
  • Pott, A. F. (1833-36): Etymological research in the field of idg. Languages.
  • Schmitt, R. (Ed.) (1977): Etymology.
  • Seebold, E. (1981): Etymology. An introduction using the example of the German language.
  • Seebold, E. (1983): Etymology, definition of terms and functions. ZGL 11.
  • Trubacev, O. N. (1965): Etimologija. Principy reconstructkcii i metodika issledovanija.
[from Th. Lewandowski (1994): Linguistic Dictionary 1. UTB for Science, 6th edition]


Created: 2019-04

etymologycalendar.com
About Comparative Linguistics

(E?) (L?) Https://etymologycalendar.com/about-comparative-linguistics/

...
Every word has a story. It may have been borrowed from another language, or it may be a formed by a combination of other words. It may have changed radically in meaning over the years, or be related to a word that looks very different nowadays. Or it can tell you something about historical events, or about the worldview of people who used the same word thousands of years ago. But how do linguists determine where a word came from?

Part of this information comes from old written sources: for example, we can see the context in which a word was used over the centuries, and use this to deduce how the meaning has changed. However, this method only works for the period from which we have written sources! In order to determine how a language developed in prehistoric times, linguists make use of a more complex technique, the so-called comparative method. This method forms the basis of our field of study, "Comparative Indo-European Linguistics", or "CIEL". For those who are interested in the theory behind the calendar, we gladly give a short introduction here!
...
The solution they came up with was to compare the various related daughter languages ​​in order to reconstruct what their common ancestor must have looked like. This hypothetical ancestor is called "Proto-Indo-European" ("PIE"). The element "Proto" indicates that the language has never been written down, and that we only know it by means of reconstruction. For the same reason we put an asterisk (*) before reconstructed words or sounds.
...


Created: 2020-02

etymonline.com
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.etymonline.com/word/etymology

etymology (n.)

late 14c., "ethimolegia" "facts of the origin and development of a word", from Old French "etimologie", "ethimologie" (14c., Modern French "étymologie"), from Latin "etymologia", from Greek "etymologia "" analysis of a word to find its true origin ", properly" study of the true sense (of a word) ", with" -logia "" study of "," a speaking of "(see" -logy ") + "etymon" "true sense", "original meaning", neuter of "etymos" "true", "real", "actual", related to "eteos" "true", which perhaps is cognate with Sanskrit "satyah", Gothic "sunjis", Old English "soð" "true", from a PIE "* set-" "be stable". Latinized by Cicero as "veriloquium".

In classical times, with reference to meanings; later, to histories. Classical etymologists, Christian and pagan, based their explanations on allegory and guesswork, lacking historical records as well as the scientific method to analyze them, and the discipline fell into disrepute that lasted a millennium. Flaubert ["Dictionary of Received Ideas"] wrote that the general view was that "etymology" was "the easiest thing in the world with the help of Latin and a little ingenuity".

As a modern branch of linguistic science treating of the origin and evolution of words, from 1640s. As "account of the particular history of a word" from mid-15c. Related: "Etymological"; "etymologically".

As practiced by Socrates in the Cratylus, etymology involves a claim about the underlying semantic content of the name, what it really means or indicates. This content is taken to have been put there by the ancient namegivers: giving an etymology is thus a matter of unwrapping or decoding a name to find the message the namegivers have placed inside. [Rachel Barney, "Socrates Agonistes: The Case of the Cratylus Etymologies," in "Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy," vol. xvi, 1998]

Related Entries
  • -logy
  • etymological
  • etymologicon
  • etymologist
  • etymologize
  • etymon
  • folk etymology



Created: 2019-03

exionnaire.com
Etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.etymologie.exionnaire.com/

Etymology


Created: 2019-03

F.

Hoffmann von Fallersleben
Non-political songs
A heavenly etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.digitale-bibliothek.de/band125.htm

A heavenly etymology

Mel. I'm Doctor Eisenbart.

"Gog is already a great devil,
Ma-Gog is much bigger than that.
But what is the De-Ma-Gog,
That's the biggest one. "


So once spoke the angel's mouth,
And the German Confederation heard that
He quickly made the angel find
Make known to us poor, poor devils.


Created: 2019-04

faustkultur.de
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://faustkultur.de/1307-0-Gerhard-Stickel-Fisimatenten.html#.Vukk36D2ZUS

...
The branch of linguistics that deals with the history of words is called "etymology". To indicate the etymology of this word: It was adopted from the Greco-Latin "etymologia" in the 16th century. In Greek, "etymos" means "really", "true". "-logie" refers to the Greek "logos", meaning "word". And so by "etymology" one understands the "search for the true meaning of words". Today we use it to denote the "origin of the meaning and form of words and their research". However, we do not believe that we can find the true or actual or even original meaning of a word in its history, but only its earlier one. I am not at all an expert in etymology myself. I've only looked at it every now and then; Because one of the particularly frequent inquiries at the Institute for German Language in Mannheim is the question of what a certain word actually means, whereby “actually” usually means the meaning that the word in question actually or probably had in the past. Linguists like to respond laconically to such questions by stating that the word actually has exactly the meaning with which it is used today. And that can often not be deduced from the history of the word. We prefer to stick with Ludwig Wittgenstein, who wrote in his "Philosophical Investigations": "The meaning of a word is its use in language." And that does not refer to an earlier, but to today's usage. We also say: "Etymology is the science of the meanings that words no longer have".
...


Created: 2020-04

fracademic.com
etymology (links)

(E?) (L?) Http://www.fracademic.com/searchall.php?SWord=etymologie

etymology (links)


Created: 2019-03

fu-berlin.de
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://web.fu-berlin.de/phin/phin47/p47t7.htm

...
Remarks

1 The "etymology" is literally the "doctrine of truth" (Herbermann 1981: 35), the "doctrine that says the truth". This reflects the idea of ​​the Stoics that one can gain information about its true nature by reconstructing the origin of the word, by 'returning' to the moment in which a person was named. The etymology or word history of etymology, explained innumerable times by authors from different disciplines, should not concern us in detail here, just as little as etymologizing itself, which is often ridiculed from today's point of view, i.e. etymological practice in pre-scientific times. See, for example, Herbermann 1991; Max Pfister (1980): Introduction to Romance Etymology. Darmstadt: Scientific Book Society; Vittore Pisani (1967): L'etimologia: Storia - Questioni - Metodo. Brescia: Paideia [also available in German translation].
...
4 For Jost Trier, the older etymology (from antiquity to the 19th century) is predominantly synchronic, whereas modern etymology is diachronic (Trier 1972: 816).
...
6 The traditional "etymology", consisting of étymologie phono-historique and étymologie lexico-historique, apply external criteria when it traces the phonetic and semantic development of words, since it considers the words of a language in isolation. It must be supplemented by an analysis of the internal motivation of the vocabulary of a language, i.e. by comparing the morphosemantic structure of individual word formation results (Guiraud 1964: 88, 117, 122). For a brief summary of Guiraud's methodology see Jänicke 1991: 35f., 40f.
...
In Dietrich & Geckeler (2004: 108, 110f.) A distinction is made between "etymology" (in the sense of "etymon") and "word history", in Pöckl et al. (2003: 39) cited as the task of the science of "etymology" is the development of "etymon" and "word history". Neither "Word History" nor "Etymology" appear in the subject index, e.g. the following introductory works: Peter Ernst (2004): Germanistische Sprachwissenschaft. Vienna: WUV; Jörg Meibauer et al. (2007): Introduction to German Linguistics, 2., act. Edition Stuttgart / Weimar: Metzler; Johannes Volmert (ed.) (2000): Grundkurs Sprachwissenschaft, 4th edition Munich: Fink.
...


Created: 2019-04

Fuchs, Konrad
Raab, Heribert
Dictionary history
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.digitale-bibliothek.de/band71.htm

"Etymology" (Greek). Proof of the origin of a word. "Etymology" is the study of the final elements that make up a word. Scientific There is a well-founded "etymology", since the ancient "etymology", based on the external consonance, is often exhausted, like that of the MA, in play on words and fantastic assumptions, only since the 19th century, as the relationship between the Indo-European languages ​​and the Laws of sound change were discovered. Etymological aids are often indispensable for historians, e.g. for the German language: Fr. Kluge, Etymological Dictionary of the German Language.

LIT.
  • F. Mauser-F. Stroh, German word history. 2 vols. (1959 to 1960);
  • H. Birkhan, Etymologie des Deutschen (1985).



Created: 2019-04

fun-with-words.com
Etymology: Word Origins

(E?) (L?) Http://www.fun-with-words.com/etymology.html

  • Where do words come from?
  • How and when were they invented?
  • Why are there so many different languages?
  • Why do many languages ​​share the same or similar words for the same things?
The answers to all these questions lie in the study of etymology. This concerns the roots of words and how the sounds and spellings, as well as the meanings, have evolved over time.
...


(E?) (L?) Http://www.fun-with-words.com/etym_explain.html

What is Etymology?

The word "etymology" is derived from the Greek "etumos" which means "real" or "true". The ending "ology" suggests the "study" / "science" of something as in "biology" or "geology". And that is the "etymology of etymology". It is the "study of the origins of words"; how they evolved. Confused?

Here is another example. The Ancient Greek word "hippos" means "horse". And "potamus" means "river". Hence "hippopotamus" literally means "river horse".

A few other parts of words derived from Ancient Greek are "tele" ("long distance"), "micro" ("small"), "phone" ("speak"), and "scope" ("look"). From these come such words as "telephone", "telescope", "microphone", and "microscope".

Of course not all words are derived from Ancient Greek. The English language is a rich mixture of many languages, and that is what makes its etymology so interesting. In the Interesting Etymology section you can learn how many words came about, particularly those with amusing origins. We also have a page about the origins of sayings and expressions.
...


Created: 2019-09

G

Georges, Karl Ernst
Concise Latin-German dictionary
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.digitale-bibliothek.de/band69.htm

"etymologia", ae, f. ("etymologia"), the derivation and explanation of a word from its root word, the word derivation, "etymology", from Cic. by "veriloquium", "notatio", translated by others by "originatio", Varro LL. 7, 109th Sen. ep. 95, 65th quint. 1, 6, 28. Cassiod. enarious. in psalm. 1. p. 10, a (ed. Garet).

"notatio", onis, f. (noto), the designation,
  • I) proper: tabularum, the small tablet with various waxes, Cic. Clu. 130. - II) transferred,
  • 1) the designation of the term contained in a word, the "etymology", Cic. Top. 10 and 36.
  • 2) the investigation at choice, iudicum, Cic. Phil. 5, 13.
  • 3) the remark, perception, observation, naturae, temporum, Cic.
  • 4) the remark uttered by the censor, notationes auctoritasque censoria, Cic. Clu. 128.
  • 5) the description, portrayal, characterization, Cornif. rhet. 4, 63.


"originatio", onis, f. (origo), the word derivation, "etymology", see Quint. 1, 6, 28.

"veriloquium", ii, n. (veriloquus),
  • I) as a translation of "etymologia", the "Etymologie", Cic. Top. 35.
  • II) truthfulness, sincerity, Ggstz. falsitas, Isid. sent. 2, 30, 4.


"Derivative", the
  • I) the guidance: "derivatio" (of a river, fluminis). - "deductio" (leading away, e.g. rivorum a fonte: u. Albanae aquae).
  • II) the derivation of a word: "originatio" (the derivation of a word from a stem; see "Etymology" the synonym). - "derivatio" (formation of one word from another by adding derivative syllables). - Drainage ditch, fossa. - cloaca (for rubbish).


"Etymology", "origo" (derivation of a word; from several also plur. "Origines vocum", "verborum", "nominum").
  • "etymum" (the true explanation and meaning of a word according to its origin; verb. "etyma vocum et origines").
  • "vis verbi" (the literal, i.e. etymological meaning of a word, e.g. totum igitur id, quid et quale sit, vis verbi ipsa declarat, already expresses the etymology of the word: verbi vim solam intuentes, only with regard to the etymology).
  • "etymologia" ("etymologia", derivation and explanation of a word from its stem, from Cic. top.35 literally translated by "veriloquium" and more appropriately by "notatio", by Quint. 1, 6, 28 by "originatio").
  • "enodatio nominum" (the development of nouns).
  • "etymologice" (the E. as a science).
  • be well versed in etymology, vocum origines rationesque percalluisse.
  • "etymological", "etymologicus".
  • the etymological meaning of a word, see "Etymology": to interpret a term etymologically, nomen alcis rei interpretari.
  • "etymologize", in enodandis nominibus laborare.
  • studiose exquirere, unde verba sint ducta.
  • scrutari origines verborum or nominum. inquirere originem verborum (to investigate the ancestry of words).
  • "vocabulorum", cur quaeque res sit ita appellata, causas explicare (explain the meanings of the words).





Created: 2019-04

Goethe & Etymology

One learns from Goethe:

(E?) (L?) Http://www.digitale-bibliothek.de/band4.htm

Goethe: [poems. Gleanings]. Goethe: Works, p. 1620

etymology

Mephistopheles speaks

Ars, Ares is called the god of war,
Ars is the name of the art, and A ... is also known.
What a secret lies in these wonderful tones!
The language remains a pure breath of heaven,
Only felt by quiet sons of earth;
The reason is firm, it is easy to use,
And where you live, you have to get used to it.
Anyone who speaks with feeling only praises himself alone;
How different when the bell jingles bimbam,
Everything is pushing its way into the meeting!
Art comes from skill, beauty comes from appearance.
So the language is only gradually pinned down,
And what a people gathered together,
Must be eternal law for heart and soul.


Created: 2019-04

google.com
etymology

(E1) (L1) https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=8&content=Etymologie
Query in Google Corpus with 15Mio. scanned books from 1500 to today.

German "Etymology" appears in the literature around 1760.

google.com
Etimología

(E?) (L?) Https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=21&content=Etimología
Query in Google Corpus with 15Mio. scanned books from 1500 to today.

Chip. "Etimología" appears in literature around the year 1570/1750.

google.com
Etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=7&content=Étymologie
Query in the Google Corpus with 15Mio. scanned books from 1500 to today.

French "Etymology" appears in literature around 1780.

google.com
Etimologia

(E?) (L?) Https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=22&content=Etimologia
Query in the Google Corpus with 15Mio. scanned books from 1500 to today.

Ital. "Etimologia" appears in literature around the year 1570/1750.

google.com
Etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Etymology
Query in the Google Corpus with 15Mio. scanned books from 1500 to today.

Engl. "Etymology" appears in literature around the year 1670.

grin.com
Etymology. On the history of etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.grin.com/document/139852

Etymology. On the history of etymology
Term paper, 2009, 14 pages
Romance Studies - Comparative Romance Studies
Christian Albrechts University Kiel, grade: 2.0
eBook (PDF) for only € 12.99

Table of Contents
  • 1. Foreword Etymology in everyday life
  • 2. Introduction Etymology as a language instrument
  • 3. Definition of etymology What is etymology anyway?
  • 4. Historical background The history of the etymology
  • 4.1. The antique
  • 4.2. Folk etymology
  • 5. Forms of etymology
  • 5.1. Etymology as Science
  • 5.2. borrowing
  • 6. Conclusion
  • 7. Bibliography
...
The Iranian scientist Abaev made a clear definition of "etymology". When it is defined, the fields of activity that are assigned to the etymology are clearly stated and separated from other fields.

1. to compare hereditary words of a certain language with the words of the related languages ​​and dialects and to trace their formal and content-related history back to the basic language;

2. To identify words that are derived from a certain language (internal linguistic derivatives) with regard to their components, the root, the stem and the formants within this language.

Jost Trier, a German linguist, has a different view of things on etymology. For Trier, the interdisciplinary properties of this science are also relevant and [he] thus adds a further meaning to the etymology.

“The effort to clarify the relationship between the words and, based on the recognized relationship, to retrace the history of the words as far as possible. We understand by "word" the entirety of "word body" and "word content". "Etymology" is word history with preference for those stretches which are not (my emphasis) in the light of historical, literary, living evidence.

But the word "etymology" is used in a second sense. The result of that effort is also called "etymology". So they say: The etymology of Baum is not completely clear, that of Wunder is still dark, but the French "père" is Latin "pater" ("patrem"). "
...
The Stoics adhere to the theory of natural origins. They coined the term "etymology", with which the search for the true meaning and for a relationship in accordance with the search named with it should be expressed. From a stoic point of view, the etymologist's task is primarily to show the appropriateness of the word for the designated object and to explain which religious, moral and metaphysical truths are hidden in the designation of the object. However, the claim of the supporters of the physei theory is unrealistic and shows that the theory of that time has nothing in common with today's and modern conception due to the fact that it is ahistorical.

The philosopher Plato was one of those who dealt intensively and extensively with the problems of etymology. In a dialogue called Kratylos, Kratylos, Socrates and Hermogenes discuss the language and Plato thus represents the linguistic-philosophical considerations of his time and the previous ones. It is assumed that this dialogue marks the starting point of linguistics and also that of etymology. Here Plato starts from pure empiricism and tries to establish etymology as a science.
...


Created: 2019-03

H

heinrich-tischner.de
Etymology (W3)

(E?) (L?) Https://www.heinrich-tischner.de/22-sp/2wo/wort/idg/fremdw/e/etymologie1.htm

  • afterwards. "*? ës-" = "to be"
  • japhet. "* hes-" = "to be" 340ff
  • Part. "* Hes-e-tós" - "* setós" = "being"
with a drop in the unstressed initial sound as in Latin / German "est" / "is" :: "sunt" / "are" Discussion
  • "eteós" = "true", "really"
  • "eteón" adv. "according to the truth", "truly", "really"
  • "étymos" = "true", "truthful", "sincere"
Plato believed that a word expressed the true essence of what it was so called.
  • "étymon" = "in truth", "really"; "natural", "bodily"; Noun "the true meaning of a word according to its origin"; "Root word"
  • "etymologeîn" = "explain the origin of the word"
  • "-logía" = "-lehre" = "etymología" = "Origin of the word"
  • lat. "etymologia" = "origin of the word" 307
  • nhd. "Etymology" = "Origin of the word"



Created: 2020-04

hyperkommunikation.ch
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.hyperkommunikation.ch/lexikon/etymologie.htm

As "etymology" I mean the study of the origin of words.

"Etymology" is not easily compatible with the view that words are arbitrary signs. I can't see what the expressions mean, they are digitally arranged. No story helps either, but stories of the origin of the word are - if they are good - entertaining. The "Etymology" provides many good stories. Anyone who derives meanings from "etymology" leaves all known forms of linguistics and makes esotericism - which does not have to be worse than science, but is at least something else.

I like to use etymological stories a lot to explain any connections that I construct. I then speak of quasi-etymology.

I have explained a nice example under "Purpose".


Created: 2020-03

I.

inl.nl
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://gtb.inl.nl/iWDB/search?actie=article&wdb=WNT&id=A006064

ETYMOLOGY

Woordsoort: znw. (V.)

Modern lemma: etymology

znw. vr., mv. -ën. Uit lat. "Etymologia", gr. "Etymologia", mog. via ofr. "ethimology" (c. 1175 / c.1160), fr. "etymology"; zoo ook tight. "etymology" (1398 / voor 1398), du. "etymologie" (16de e./c. 1520). International term, aanvankelijk in de rhetorica en de grammatica, later in de moderne taalwetenschap. Rivet in Mnl. W.

1. Onderzoek naar den oorsprong en de geschiedenis van woorden; opr. in de grammatica en rhetorica: kennis van de formeele en semantic seeds tusschen afzonderlijke woorden; later als discipline in de moderne taalwetenschap.

2. Herkomst, divorced from een ​​afzonderlijk woord.

© 2007 INL. Article published in 2001.


Created: 2019-03

Irmscher, Johannes (Ed.)
Johne, Renate (Ed.)
Lexicon of antiquity
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.digitale-bibliothek.de/band18.htm

"Etymology" [from the Greek "etymon", "the true meaning of a word with regard to its origin"]: the theory of the origin, derivation and basic meaning of words founded by the Greeks. While the poets had tried etymologies since Homer, which in the end were nothing more than folk etymologies (= interpretations of misunderstood words through phonetic adaptation to known ones), the philosophers of the 5th cent. u. Z. the question of the correctness of the name and the possibility of its origin; Etymological knowledge was later promised to provide deep insights into the objective nature of the world, since the names were assumed to be closely related to the essence of things.

Modern linguistics understands etymology to be the return of a word to its earliest tangible form and meaning or to a root common to several languages.


Created: 2019-04

J

K

koeblergerhard.de
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://koeblergerhard.de/zwerga-f.htm

"Etymology" ([F.] "Doctrine of Truth") has been the practice since the 5th century BC. A doctrine of the origin of a word, recognizable among the Greeks, which is helpful in clarifying the development history of linguistic units.

Lit .:
  • Klinck, R., The Latin Etymology of the Middle Ages, 1970;
  • Köbler, G., Etymological Legal Dictionary, 1995



Created: 2020-03

King, Werner
Atlas German language
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.digitale-bibliothek.de/band112.htm

...
The sciences of language

In historical linguistics, the development of language through the ages is considered ("diachrony"). In the "Etymology" elements (e.g. words, endings) of different languages ​​(or a single language) are represented by comparing their relationship to one another. The "historical grammar" traces the language as a system through history, the "linguistic history" also considers the change in language in relation to its socio-cultural background.


Created: 2019-04

Kraus, Karl
The torch
etymology

(E?) (L?) Http://www.digitale-bibliothek.de/band34.htm

Glosses

etymology

If monarchists can hope for judicial understanding as soon as they assassinate Republicans, they assume it all the more in those cases where they only insult them. Because here they can even justify themselves by saying that they didn't mean it that way. In this method, progress is made on a daily basis. But while Mr. Hussarek's defense attorney still left open the possibility that the word "rogue" not only means "skillful" but also "dishonorable", another monarchist accused who called a republican politician "scoundrel" has now appealed insisted that this word was not an insult at all: it came from the Hebrew "shofai" and this meant "people's representative" or "military leader". He couldn't be lucky with that, of course, but at least arouse sympathy through honest efforts. On the other hand, a republican who would have called a Habsburg general a "villain" and a "villain" would be lost from the start. Because if he wanted to say that he was a "skillful military leader" one would certainly not believe him.


Annotation:

The origin of German "scoundrel" is not completely clear. It would be possible to derive it from nddt. "Schufut" = dt. "Wretched man", literally dt. "Uhu", mniederdt. "created" = onomatopoeic fortune for the eagle owl. the name of the light-shy bird would then have been transferred (pejoratively) to humans.

German "Schurke", older also German "Schurk", "Schork" could possibly be traced back to German "Schüren". Althdt would be suitable for this. "fiurscurgo" = (pejorative) German "Feuerschürer".

Created: 2019-04

L.

larousse.fr
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.larousse.fr/encyclopedie/divers/étymologie/49926

etymology

(Latin "etymologia", du grec "etumologia", de "etumos", "vrai")

Consultant also dans le dictionnaire: "étymologie"

Science qui a pour objet la recherche de l'origine des mots d'une langue donnée, et la reconstitution de l'ascendance de ces mots.

Née avec les speculations des premiers philosophes grecs sur l'origine du langage, l'étymologie s'est longtemps restreinte à la recherche des filiations onomatopéiques qui permettraient de remonter à la langue originelle de l'humanité. Avec la grammaire comparée au xixe s., La recherche étymologique acquiert un statut scientifique (Bopp, Grimm et Zeuss pour les langues germaniques, Raynouard et Diez pour les langues romanes). Ayant dégagé des lois d'évolution phonétique, on remonte du mot étudié à sa racine, attestée ou supposée: ainsi le mot roi sera expliqué par les transformations successives subies par le latin regem (accusatif de rex). Débordant l'étude strictement phonétique, l'étymologie se fixe aujourd'hui pour tâche d'analyser la filiation des formes et des sens successifs, les vicissitudes d'emploi, les facteurs psychosociologiques du changement (phenomènes de tabous, d'étymologie popular, Etc.).


Created: 2019-03

learnamericanenglishonline.com
etymology

(E?) (L?) Https://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Word of the Day / 2014 / April / etymology.html

Word of the Day: "etymology"

When studying English, your teacher might talk to you about a word's etymology. The etymology of a word is the history or the origin of the word. Advanced learners of English are the ones most likely to have this kind of a lesson (in a word's eytmology) with a teacher, but it's possible some beginning level or intermediate level students would benefit from it.

Why should we study the history of English words? There are two really good reasons for this.

First, you will learn that the English language is composed of many different languages: German, Latin, Danish, Hebrew, French, and Greek. Understanding one of these languages ​​will help you with your English.

Second, studying etymology helps students realize that the meanings of words change over time, and that these meanings are determined by the people who use the language. We, the people, keep languages ​​alive by using them. Teachers and academics try to enforce rules of grammar and usage on us, but the real language comes from the people. To learn English well requires that you interact with the people who use it.
...


Created: 2019-03

lexilogos.com
Etymology