Can autistic children get good grades
Compensation for the disadvantage of autism
What is disadvantage compensation?
Compensation for disadvantages is used to enable pupils with a disability, a chronic illness, a temporary impairment and / or with special educational support needs to call up their skills in relation to the requirements of the general school. The elaboration of a disadvantage compensation is not done schematically, but must first be determined by a detailed assessment of the individual situation of the student. The type and scope of the compensation for disadvantages serve to compensate for the disability in such a way that the principle of equal opportunities is complied with as completely as possible.
- GG Article 3, Paragraph 3, Sentence 3:
- "Nobody may be disadvantaged because of his disability
Disability Equality Act
- Social Code IX § 126:
The regulations on assistance for disabled people to compensate for disability-related disadvantages or additional expenses (compensation for disadvantages) are designed in such a way that they take into account the type or severity of the disability regardless of the cause of the disability.
HSchG, § 3 Paragraph 6
VOGSV § 7
Understanding of the teachers for the affected student
Students with autistic behavior have a profound developmental disorder. Your life situation is made more difficult by sensory, motor, emotional and social problems. Impairments in perception processing and motor skills as well as communication and interaction are of central importance. A restricted, repetitive repertoire of behavior is also characteristic. These qualitative impairments are a defining characteristic of the student in all situations, but vary in their degree of severity. The disorders are defined on the basis of behavior, regardless of intellectual abilities.
The promotion of pupils with autistic behavior requires teaching that relates to all areas of development. In order to actively cope with life in the greatest possible social integration and for a life of extensive independence and self-determination, special integration and learning opportunities are required.
Specific promotional and support measures are based on the assumption that the development, learning behavior and living situation of the pupils with autistic behavior are not uniform or legal, but are subject-related and therefore fundamentally individual. In this understanding, access to the world is not understood as a deficit, but as a specific one. The resulting behaviors of students who grow up with an autistic disorder must always be questioned with regard to their meaningfulness for the acting individual. For pedagogical practice, this means that support, counseling and promotion measures cannot be based on a defined normal course of development, but are developed in dialogue with those affected and with the involvement of the environment.
The lessons for pupils with autistic behavior are based on the respective course of study. The educational content must be conveyed with a view to the level of development and the learning requirements of the students. Partial performance levels are taken into account. The teachers take into account the pedagogically significant effects of autistic behavior, for example likes, dislikes, fear behavior, stereotypes especially in movement and play, everyday rituals, abnormal perception, in language acquisition and use of language, emotional sensitivity and social characteristics.
Granting of a disadvantage compensation as a conducive condition
Autistic behavior is diverse in its expression and appearance.
If their motor skills and perception are impaired, the children need more time or the use of other materials or aids. If there is a pronounced fear of change, the learning environment and the break design and organization must also be taken into account. The impairment in the area of motor skills and perception processing can lead to considerable difficulties in physical education, especially in group and team games. Alternative offers can be individual sports exercises or psychomotor exercises. The exemption from physical education should also be considered. Dealing with school and teaching tasks can make it necessary to change structures in terms of time, content and / or space. When designing a compensation for disadvantages, the individual factors must be assessed and taken into account. Under certain circumstances, an appropriate consideration of the autistic behavior cannot be clearly determined from the outset, but must be flexibly adapted to the current situation.
Significance of the disadvantage compensation:
The compensation for disadvantages serves to compensate for the disadvantages arising from the handicap and does not represent a preference for disabled pupils over their classmates. Without reducing the technical requirements, oral, written, practical and other performance requirements are based on special educational requirements Adequate consideration should be given to the special needs or the disability or temporary functional impairment of the pupil.
- Parents submit an informal application for disadvantage compensation according to § 7 VOGSV to the class management.
- The class conference decides on the type and scope of any disadvantage compensation to be granted, if necessary in consultation with the advisory and support center (BFZ) responsible for the respective type of disability.
- Recommendations regarding the compensation of disadvantages from the discussions with the parents and by the funding committee are to be taken into account by the school when making its decision
- A note about the granted compensation for disadvantages must not appear in papers and certificates.
- The type and scope of the compensation for disadvantages are entered in the respective individual support plan.
- The decision on the type and scope of the compensation for disadvantages must be put on file.
- In cases of doubt or if action should be taken against the above recommendation, as well as in the case of final exams, the decision of the school inspection authority must be obtained.
Examples of implementation
The aim is to address the handicap of the individual student in the performance requirements through differentiated organizational and methodical offers, without reducing the technical requirements.
Depending on the severity of the impairment. Lesson organization area (homework, forms of work, work equipment, break regulations, time factor ...)
Depending on the task, written instead of oral exams (e.g. a presentation in written form instead of a presentation in front of the entire group - or vice versa).
Changed break regulations
individual workplace organization
Problems with self-organization: Offer structuring aids such as homework booklet, pocket timetable, detailed description, flowchart, breakdown of requirements on the occasion of examination situations
Due to drug treatment or a lack of flexibility in the motor skills, problems with fine motor skills can arise - this would be the case in art lessons, mathematical-geometric tasks, especially the evaluation of “drawing”: greater tolerance for accuracy, use of alternative media
Provision or approval of special work equipment such as table of times, typewriter, computer, cassette recorder, larger and specifically designed worksheets, larger lines, special pens and the like.
Compensatory measures instead of writing down blackboard texts,
In group work situations, you can also work alone if you wish (there may be uncertainties about not being accepted)
For exams, if necessary, separate space is available so that other stimuli do not distract.
Make more time available for classwork, if necessary
Organizational / methodological change in homework (some students cannot cope with homework because it messes up the clear separation between home and school, which in turn can have confusing effects.)
- Linguistic area
- Since these young people have their own idea of the world, it is not always easy to understand the respective lines of thought; this usually applies primarily to the linguistic area, i.e. the subject German and possibly also foreign languages. The following example for the subject German is intended to help develop ideas for your own school work.
German: a. formal-grammatical area b. Essay education, literature-related tasks c. Oral work (definition of oral performance assessment)
Regarding b: As a rule, retelling is possible. Problems can arise due to the lack of structuring ability, possible aids are: Structuring scheme over the process (introduction, main part ... incl. Time specifications) Clear and appropriate definition of the action and the task, which are adapted to his understanding (what does retelling mean? Some believe they have to Retell the entire text verbatim ...) ... Summary, process descriptions: structuring aids, clear agreements and definitions ¾ possibly more time ... Description of situations with personal contexts: lack of empathy, lack of skills, facial expressions, gestures, interpersonal interactions or emotional contexts that make sense for him refer to; this can lead to understanding and implementation difficulties (according to our understanding of the world). With their view of the world, they often go beyond the "standard agreements", which does not necessarily correlate with the requirements of the curriculum, but in some aspects with the respective intellectual school level. Instead, offer relevant content or other thematic focal points that take factual knowledge into account, greater accuracy tolerance or changed tolerance range in order to take his / her understanding of the world into account, ¾ apply assessment criteria more to style and content. Example: Description means describing something from one's perspective. Breaking down evaluations (spelling, content, expression, grammar ...) Interpretation and poetry The main problem is not being able to put yourself in the shoes of people if there is no personal experience. Literal understanding, poor understanding of metaphors Use dictionary, explain / translate existing metaphors, if necessary mark breaks in meaning and metaphors - e.g. as a slip of paper in the exam or as a "vocabulary research" Clear definition of interpretation, alternatively interpretation with relevant content or with topics from his / her / Your area of experience Assessment: As a rule, it is possible to assess a counterpart in the first-person role if the topic comes from your own area of experience. For the evaluation, it is important to reflect to what extent his / her text is inherently logical. It is not always possible to compare the content with others in the class.Give structuring guidelines, e.g .: Pay attention to metaphors that occur, clarify the role assumption, represent the position of the people involved ... Example poetry: Cabal and love. Alternatively: - Working out the historical background or giving a lecture on the historical background of this story, e.g. about Schiller, the time in which it was written ... as a supplement to the overall context - Pay attention to the balance of the content. The topic of love and feelings should not run over an entire course, create opportunities for compensation.
- Mathematical area
- For geometric tasks (e.g. constructions, drawings, graphics) and for tasks from algebra, grant a greater accuracy tolerance if there are fine and graphomotor problems. Structuring aids in the run-up to different types of tasks give clear announcements with reference to requirement structures, change from mathematical operations ... to a positive result achieve. Word problems become problematic if they are in a social context or if they are "hidden" in a fable, for example. Accept individual calculation methods if these are used in parallel or instead of formal calculation methods and lead to the correct result.
- Musical area
- Music: if active participation is not possible, grading should be based on written performance. Art: in the case of problems with free topics that require a high degree of imagination and creativity, a specific task can alternatively be given. “Paint” can be replaced by “Draw”.
- Existing difficulties in grasping and implementing social contexts and a weak autonomy of action can lead to the fact that these young people are not able to implement more complex patterns of action independently and to coordinate several areas of perception at the same time. This is an essential requirement for team games. In this case, the focus of the assessment should be on the individual sports. Motor problems should not be included in the assessment. If necessary, it is possible to reflect on the suspension of the evaluation.
- Natural science / social science area
- (History, geography, philosophy, religion ...) The same standards apply to these subjects as to the linguistic area. Teaching main topics should be checked for their emotional and social context and, if necessary, balanced by offers that require factual knowledge, such as functional descriptions, factual texts - instead of texts in a social context, logging an experiment instead of presenting it, etc.
Problems with the implementation of the disadvantage compensation in the general school:
Example 1: Yannick
He is in the third grade of the local elementary school. Since neither the special educational support nor the compensation for disadvantages have been properly implemented, the boy's performance level was not correctly assessed in the current certificate and the graduation of the course of study was announced for the coming school year (specialization focus on learning), the parents have written an objection to the certificate and pushed for the implementation of the disadvantage compensation (in the sense of the preventive measures before a possible reduction of the learning objectives). They present their arguments as follows:
The boy's ability to perform was initially only assessed using an intelligence test. However, an intelligence test is largely unsuitable for this type of disability, as autistic people perceive the world differently and communicate differently. It also does not correspond to responsible special educational support diagnostics to compare an autistic child 1: 1 with a fictitious "normal group" of students and to draw deficient conclusions from random samples that ignore the real situation in order to assume that the child has a lack of cognitive performance. The task of special education, according to the recommendations of the KMK and Hessian school law, is rather to examine a content-related diagnostic question as a starting point for didactic decisions, to create a child-environment analysis that enables the WHO definition of disability (see UN -BRK) and indicate the search for the location in the competence orientation in the various content areas. The responsible advisory and support center had already presented the school with a very detailed proposal for implementing the compensation for disadvantages. However, it has been proven that this has not yet been implemented.
Yannick is entitled to the language support focus: There was very little support for this in the first year of school and no more support in the second year of school. There was also no personal support for the class teacher. The school therefore did not take this funding priority into account either.
The class teacher is apparently overwhelmed with the situation: The class consists of 17 students. The class teacher could support the pupils individually according to §3 Abs. 6 HSchG. The teaching concept should therefore be examined if, despite the smaller class, she does not succeed in encouraging the child. For pupils with disabilities, the class teacher is also entitled to support and expert advice from special education. The advice from the responsible BFZ has not yet been accepted (not understood?) Or its suggestions have not been implemented, possibly because the teachers cannot be sufficiently on site due to time / capacity reasons? In the case of Yannick, the lack of special school teachers also seems to lead to a disadvantageous development of his individual support in the area of language. The class teacher has little idea of autism and how to deal with it (advanced training ???). She is very uncertain about the implementation of the disadvantage compensation.The school also does not seem to be aware of the grading of the disadvantage compensation according to VOGSV § 7, paragraphs 3 and 4, as this is mentioned on the certificate, although there was no change in the performance evaluation. The way in which the child’s certificate is written (which demonstrably does not correspond to his / her performance level!) Thus shows the current deficits in the school system.
As a result, Yannick is currently being treated more or less like a non-disabled child; he is compared with classmates, has to adapt to the system and has not yet received the special educational support to which he is already entitled. And unfortunately also not the compensation for disadvantages, which has to be exhausted before thinking about a funding focus on learning at all.
The parents have already proposed solutions to the school supervisory authority to change the school situation, which, as summarized above, evidently does not result from the child's performance but from the inadequacy of the school and a school system that cannot meet the legal requirements of children with disabilities, results. This initially does not react to the content-related points regarding the wrong performance assessment of the child and the disadvantage compensation not implemented by the school, but instructs the child to be checked again.
The impression arises that the child is being disadvantaged here, only to relieve the burden on the teacher / general school: What is being done to change the problems inherent in the school system? With which resources can the school be supported so that it finally deals appropriately with the child and develops suitable didactic concepts for a child in the autism spectrum? What is the actual goal of the learning course here? The promotion of the child can hardly be meant, because the graduation to a lower education course does not promote. On the contrary, it only denies the child the right to equal and full access to education. It can hardly serve as support for the class teacher, because even when she was entitled to the language specialization, she received no special teacher for support. As is well known, there is unfortunately no longer any resource for the funding priority learning. The learning focus does not specifically include dealing with autism. Nor is it intended to develop suitable didactic concepts for students with autism. So it would have no pedagogical or didactic advantage. Why is the school authority currently only looking for the deficits in the child and obviously concentrating on relieving the burden on the teacher instead of implementing the necessary reasonable precautions? Why is the failure of the system blamed on the child who, incidentally, has up to now more or less coped with the subject matter at school even without compensating for the disadvantages? Even in the version of the certificate issued so far, Yannick does not have a comprehensive, serious or long-lasting learning deficit. The boy has difficulty speaking and understanding the text. This results from the form of the disability and this must be taken into account according to the definition of disability on which the WHO is based and which is valid in Hessian school law. He makes regular and good progress, but autistic pupils need the implementation and explanation of semantically abstract or ambiguous terms for them throughout their lives. This must be considered. It takes a lot of effort, but it would be the only correct way according to Art. 3 GG and not sitting out the problem by downgrading to a lower level of education just because the right to compensation for disadvantages seems too laborious for the teacher.
IGEL-OF e.V. - Initiative for learning together for the city and district of Offenbach
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