Which dialect is spoken south of Lazio?

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Italian languages, Branch of the Indo-European languages ​​that includes Latin with its current descendants, the Romance languages, and a number of other languages ​​spoken in ancient Italy. (Some authors use the term "Italic languages" exclusively for the ancient languages.) The ancient Italian languages ​​are divided into three branches whose phonetic systems are closely related but which differ more in their grammar. Some linguists consider them to be independent Indo-European subfamilies which distinguish themselves from other Indo-European language groups due to their common characteristics. The previously common assumption that the Italian languages ​​go back to a single source language is still accepted. The three branches are: (1) Latino-Faliskish, to the the Latin language originally spoken in Lazio (the area around Rome and the Tiber in western central Italy) and the Faliski, which is closely related to Latin; this language is documented by some inscriptions from a small area between Lazio and the area of ​​the Etruscans; (2 ) Osko-Umbrian, widespread in ancient Italy was and to which two main representatives belong, namely Oskish and Umbrian, and (3) Venetian, a language of northeastern Italy, which has been preserved in some inscriptions in the area between the Po and Istria; it has only recently been counted among the Italian languages.

It should be noted that the term "Italian languages" only includes some languages ​​of ancient Italy. Knowledge of these languages ​​comes from Greek and Roman sources, but above all from ancient inscriptions. Latin, originally the dialect of Rome, was used in Italy in the In the course of the Roman expansion, the vast majority of the inhabitants of the Apennine Peninsula originally spoke other Italian or non-Italian languages. Etruscan, a non-Indo-European language that was once predominant in western Italy north of Lazio and whose relationships are unknown, was one of the most important non-Italian languages. Gaulish, a Celtic language spoken in areas further north-west, and Mesapic, which was common in the south-east on the coast, and which was obviously related to the Indo-European Illyrian language in the Balkans, and Greek became part of the colonies of Sicily n and spoken in the southern part of the Italian peninsula. By 100 AD, Latin had supplanted all other dialects between Sicily and the Alps.

Of all the Italian languages, only Latin is fully known from many inscriptions and extensive literature. Oskish and Umbrian are relatively well documented by inscriptions. Oscar was spoken by many tribes in central and southern Italy, including the Samnites and possibly the Sabines. Oscar texts have also been found in cities such as Pompeii and Capua (now Santa Maria Capua Vetere). Umbrian, which is closely related to Oscar, was spoken in central Italy and is passed down mainly through the religious texts on the Iguvin tablets. The seven bronze tablets found near Gubbio in Italy contain the most extensive inscriptions known from a dead ancient language.
Italian language, Romance language from the family of Indo-European languages. Italian is spoken by around 66 million people, mainly on the Italian peninsula, in southern Switzerland, on Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. As a single language with numerous dialects, Italian, like the other Romance languages, arose directly from Latin, which was spoken by the Romans and the peoples assimilated under their rule. Of the major Romance languages, Italian is the closest to Latin. The examination of the written but dead language and the various forms of the living languages, mostly derived from Vulgar Latin, was nowhere as intense and persistent as in Italy. Until modern times, Latin was the language of the church, administration and science.
Many dialects appeared during the long period of development of Italian. In the north and north-west the Galloital dialects predominate; these include Piedmontese, Lombard, Ligurian and Emilian or Bolognese, all of which show a clear relationship with French in their pronunciation and the loss of inflected endings. The Venetian dialect is spoken in addition to the actual Venetian area in South Tyrol and in parts of the former Dalmatia and Istria. South of these areas are the Italian dialects of the Centro-Sud; these include Tuscan, Northern Sardinian, Roman and the closely related dialects of Umbria and the Marche. The southern Italian dialects include Campanian (with the dialects of Abruzzo and Puglia), Sicilian and Calabrian. The southern and central Sardinian dialects are so different from this whole group that they represent a separate branch of the Romance languages. Friulian or Friulian, a dialect of the eastern Alps spoken in northeastern Veneto, is considered a Rhaeto-Romanic dialect by most linguists.
The variety of dialects and the requirement of the respective speakers that each of these dialects should be regarded as a pure Italian language form created particular problems in the development of a generally recognized form of Italian that was to reflect the cultural unity of the entire peninsula. Even the oldest Italian usage texts, which emerged in the 10th century, show a dialectal language level. Over the next three centuries, Italian writers wrote in the regional dialects, creating a variety of competing regional literary styles. During the 14th century, the Tuscan dialect became predominant. This was due to the central location of Tuscany in Italy and the aggressive trade of the most important Tuscan city, Florence. In addition, on the morphological and phonological level of all Italian dialects, Tuscan differs the least from Classical Latin. That is why it also harmonizes best with the Italian traditions of Latin culture. Finally, the Florentine culture gave birth to the three poets who represented the Italian intellectual and emotional life of the late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance: Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarca and Giovanni Boccaccio.
IV. The newer Italian
In the 15th and 16th centuries, grammarians tried to give the pronunciation, syntax, and vocabulary of 14th-century Tuscan the status of central and classical Italian. In the dictionaries and publications of the Accademia della Crusca, which was founded in 1583 and is decisive in Italy for questions of the Italian language, compromises were successfully made between classical purism and the lively Tuscan language usage. In today's Italian, the Latin quality of the Florentine dialect has been preserved. However, the Latin vocabulary has been adapted to the changing living conditions in Italy. The simple phonetic changes compared to Latin as well as an almost perfect phonetic spelling make it easy to learn Italian for anyone who has already mastered Latin or one of the modern Romance languages. The most noticeable difference between Italian and French or Spanish lies in the form of the plural, which is not with -s or-it, but with most feminine nouns -e and with masculine words -i ends. As far as the word order in noun groups is concerned, the adjective is placed after the noun. The word order in the sentence is subject-predicate-object. In contrast to Latin, the inflection system of nouns is characterized by a strong breakdown of the case system, while the inflection of verbs is still clearly pronounced.
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