Search Google Scholar in full text

Research on the Internet

search engines

A large number of research tools are available for scientific research on the World Wide Web, which can be divided into the categories of web search engines, web directories and research databases. The ideal type of research tool to be used depends largely on the nature of the question.

Web search engines

Web search engines make the full text of documents searchable on the WWW, a distinction is made between universal and special search engines. Universal search engines try to capture as large a part of the WWW as possible without restriction and to make it searchable. They are used when what you are looking for can be precisely described, e.g. a company known by name, an organization, a magazine, etc. The focus of the application is therefore looking up. The four most important universal search engines, each with their own database, are:

Special search engines

however, only index a selected part of the WWW. Due to the relevant selection of indexed websites, they are also suitable for thematic research. Major science search engines are:

  • BASE Bielefeld Academic Search Engine
    Search engine for scientific documents accessible as Open Access. Connects different repositories and makes their content searchable under one interface.
  • EconBiz
    Search engine for economics from the German Central Library for Economics
  • Google Scholar


Google Scholar

Google Scholar is Google's search engine for scientific documents. The following explains how you use Google Scholar and what you should pay attention to. In the adjacent video tutorial, an example search with Google Scholar is carried out and explained.

There is no quality control of the documents listed in Google Scholar. This means that documents that do not meet the academic standards accepted at WU may also be included. It is therefore important to question the seriousness of each document again.

Which documents are listed in Google Scholar?

It is not clear which sources are searched and which are hidden. The only way to find out is to use different search tools and compare the results.
Since the origin of the data often remains unclear, the reliability of the sources of the search results must be assessed and researched individually.
Part of the problem is that bibliographic data from diverse sources is automatically combined with one another. So this information can be incomplete or even wrong. For example, the title of the source can appear in different spellings or abbreviations. Therefore, different versions of the name should be searched for.

How does Google search? How does Google rank the results?

Google gives little information about how to search and how search results are ordered. However, it is certain that the search results are rated according to how many links from other pages refer to the hit and how important / influential these pages are classified by Google. This procedure is based on the PageRank algorithm. Google Scholar also takes into account how often a document has been cited in academic sources.
Websites that are assigned less importance can appear at the bottom of the search results list. This can cause problems, especially when researching niche topics.

When do I use Google Scholar?

For a general overview of a broad topic, research with Google Scholar can be useful. In order to get a deeper insight into special aspects of a topic, the sources provided by the library should also be used.

Google Scholar can also be used well for targeted document searches, especially if you have established a connection to the library.

Do I have to pay for items?

In some cases, the article vendor's website will ask you to buy the article when you are ready to read it. First of all, you should make sure that Google Scholar is connected to the university library via the library links so that you can see directly whether the article is available through WU (explanation in the video). Furthermore, you should either use remote access or access the Internet via the WU network to get access to the article. Since the data in Google Scholar are not complete and consistent, you can also check whether you have free access to the desired article via the databases and journals of the university library. Alternatively, you can order the article via the Document Delivery Service.

Searching with Google Scholar

The interface of Google Scholar looks very similar to that of the universal search engine Google. You can either use the quick search (simple search field) or select the advanced search. You can get to this via the menu at the top on the left.

Advanced Search

You will see the search string in the search field above the input mask. This is the search query that Google Scholar converts your entries from the Advanced Search into. The search string from the example on the right is completely:

rural settlement OR village "road safety"

Unless otherwise specified, Google automatically links the specified terms with the AND operator, which therefore does not appear explicitly in the search string, but is used. The desired period is also automatically set in the filters on the left.

The search result is presented to you in the main part of the page (see Figure: Search result in Google Scholar), while you can use the filters on the left to narrow it down further. On the right side you will find details about how to access the document.

Is behind the search result Full text via WU Library or Full view, the document can be accessed directly from WU. Google Scholar does not search all sources available through the university library. Therefore, if it is not available via Google Scholar, you should still check the offers of the university library.

For access from outside the WU network, add the WU Vienna - Full Text via WU library added. In addition, you can The Austrian Union Catalog - Austrian Union Catalog Select to display hits that are accessible via other Austrian libraries. You can see which results are accessible via the university library or other Austrian libraries. WU students and WU employees can access the library's licensed resources from home. On this page of the IT services you will find detailed instructions on how to set up remote access.

search result

Which search operators can be used?

Search operators can be combined with one another.

-filetype: pdf

for example excludes pdf files.

"leading style" OR "leading behavior" management intitle: team

This search string can be used to find documents in which the phrases leading style and or leading behavior as well as the word management are included anywhere. In addition, the word team appear in the title of the document.

The following table contains a selection of the possible search operators.

"...""leading styles"To search for a specific phrase, the search words are placed in quotation marks.
filetypefiletype: pdfThe hits should have a certain file format.
intitleintitle: keynesThe search terms should appear in the title of the document.
sitesite: .eduThe results should only come from a specific website. It is also possible to restrict to parts of the URL, such as .edu or .org.
authorauthor: keynesThe hits should have a specific author.
ORx OR yTo search for documents that contain one or both of the specified search terms.
--competitionMatches containing this word are excluded.
++ andFrequently occurring words, letters or numbers are usually not included in the search by Google. In this way, these terms can be integrated into the search.


Internet research - tips and tricks

  • Record the question clearly and precisely in writing.
  • Define the type of information (bibliographical, full text, facts / figures, materials, multimedia).
  • Select entry (specialist portal, search engine, meta search engine, directory).
  • Name search terms (at least 3 precise terms, use nouns).
  • Enter terms according to the rules of the search service.
  • Pay attention to the link (AND, OR, NOT).
  • View the first three documents of the hit list in full.
  • Change, refine, improve your search step by step. Use different search tools.
  • Search in multiple languages. Use international services.
  • Author: Are there links to specific information about the author, "About us", imprint?
  • accuracy: Structure of the information, verified by quotations or links, grammar or spelling errors, do the links work?
  • objectivity: Is the motivation of the author clear, are opposing opinions expressed, are advertising clearly separated from information?
  • Topicality: Specification of data: When was the page created, last update, is information still up-to-date and relevant?
  • cover: Are the topics clearly delimited, is the information comprehensive and sufficient, is it backed up by up-to-date links, does the page bring something new or is it just collected, missing something important?


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