How much is Metronidazole 250mg
This is how metronidazole works
After ingestion, metronidazole accumulates in anaerobic bacteria and some other unicellular parasitic pathogens (protozoa). Only special enzymes inside the germs convert the antibiotic into the actually active compounds that damage the genetic make-up of the pathogen - the germs die.
Since this main mechanism only works inside anaerobic germs, metronidazole has hardly any effect on oxygen-loving bacteria or human or animal cells.
Uptake, degradation and excretion of metronidazole
After oral ingestion, the antibiotic is almost completely (almost 100 percent) absorbed from the intestine into the body. It takes about eight hours for half of the active ingredient to be broken down and excreted (mainly through the kidneys).
If metronidazole is used in the form of suppositories (rectally), about eighty percent of the active ingredient gets into the blood; when used vaginally, it is only about twenty percent.
When is metronidazole used?
The antibiotic is used for bacterial infections with anaerobic bacteria (especially in the vaginal, gastrointestinal, ear, nose and throat area) or to prevent them during operations. Metronidazole is also used for infections caused by pathogenic protozoa such as trichomonads (trichomoniasis), amoebas (amoebiasis) or giardia (giardiasis / lambliasis). Depending on the area of application, the antibiotic is administered for several days. This duration of use prescribed by the doctor must be strictly adhered to in order to avoid relapses.
Metronidazole cream is used externally for skin diseases such as rosacea ("copper rose") and inflammation around the mouth area (perioral dermatitis), as the antibiotic also has anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, such skin diseases are sometimes associated with certain types of bacteria that the antibiotic can kill. Occasionally, longer-term use can also be considered here.
This is how metronidazole is used
The most common dosage form of metronidazole for internal infections is tablets or capsules. There are also vaginal suppositories specially designed for vaginal infections.
In the case of severe infections, the antibiotic is given as an infusion (intravenous) in the hospital.
Metronidazole cream and gel are available for the treatment of skin diseases.
When using the antibiotic, patients must strictly adhere to the doctor's instructions regarding the dosage and duration of use. Otherwise, relapses can occur, or the bacteria become insensitive (resistant) to the antibiotic, which makes it ineffective.
What are the side effects of metronidazole?
During therapy with metronidazole, nausea and abdominal pain (such as stomach pressure) are very common (in more than one in ten people treated).
Often (i.e. in one in ten to one hundred people treated), the side effects of metronidazole include a metallic taste in the mouth, vomiting, diarrhea and dark color of the urine (due to breakdown products of the active ingredient).
What should be considered when using metronidazole?
Alcohol should be avoided during therapy with metronidazole. Otherwise, even small amounts of alcohol can cause skin reddening, nausea, vomiting and dizziness.
If metronidazole and various other drugs are used at the same time, interactions are to be expected: For example, the antibiotic can increase the effect of oral anticoagulants (warfarin, phenprocoumon). Conversely, epilepsy drugs with the active ingredient phenytoin can reduce the effect of metronidazole. Further interactions can occur with the simultaneous use of lithium (for manic-depressive illness etc.), barbiturates (sleeping pills and sedatives) and cimetidine (for heartburn, gastrointestinal ulcers, etc.).
To date, there is no firm evidence that metronidazole has harmful effects on children in the womb. Nevertheless, to be on the safe side, it should not be used during pregnancy, unless it is absolutely necessary. The use of the antibiotic should also be considered very carefully when breastfeeding.
The antibiotic is also suitable for children under six years of age, for example in the form of suppositories (tablets and capsules can usually not be swallowed easily by small children).
Metronidazole should not be used in severe liver damage, blood formation disorders and disorders of the nervous system.
How to get medication with metronidazole
Regardless of the metronidazole dosage, the active ingredient requires a prescription and is only available from the pharmacy.
Since when has metronidazole been known?
Metronidazole was first developed in 1959 as an anti-protozoal agent based on a natural antibiotic produced by bacteria of the genus Streptomyces is produced (azomycin). The antibacterial effectiveness of metronidazole was discovered by chance in 1962, when the active ingredient freed a patient from both his protozoal infection and his bacterial gingivitis.
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