What meal has carbohydrate protein and fat

Sports nutrition - nutritional recommendations

  1. Nutrition tips
  2. Sports nutrition
  3. Diet recommendations

carbohydrates

Since the performance of an athlete is closely related to the level of glycogen fillingStorage related, a sufficient intake of carbohydrates is extremely important for sporting activities. Carbohydrates are thus the most important source of energy for the athlete. After these energy carriers have been split up in the digestive tract, they are absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the target organs (brain, muscles, etc.) and processed.

The carbohydrate content should vary by sport at 55-60% (up to max. 70%) the total energy consumption. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has an absolute intake of 6-10 g / kg Body weight recommended. For a 75 kg athlete that would be around 450-750 g of carbohydrates per day.

Complex carbohydrates with a low glycemic index should be chosen as sources. In addition to the good satiety effect, they have a high nutrient density. Foods with a low glycemic index are usually rich in vitamins, minerals, Trace elements and secondary plant substances that have a positive effect on the metabolism and promote optimal athletic performance. In contrast, highly glycemic foods usually only provide empty calories and therefore do not provide the athlete with any additional benefit.

The following table shows an overview of the carbohydrate sources that are more suitable and those that are less suitable for athletes.

suitable sources of carbohydratesrather unsuitable sources of carbohydrates
high-carb and starchy foods
- cereal grains
- Whole grain products
- Oat, wheat flakes
- Legumes
- potatoes
- pasta, bread, rice etc.
Sugar and sugary foods and drinks
- confectionery
- Soft drinks (Cola, Fanta, lemonades)
- fruit gums
- ice cream
- Cakes and pies
- jams etc.
fresh and frozen fruit
- pear, apple, banana
- citrus fruits
- berry fruits
- pineapple, kiwi, etc.
Products made from heavily ground flours
- white flour products
- Toast bread, white bread, white rolls
- biscuits and baked goods
fresh and frozen vegetables
- Cabbage vegetables (red cabbage, cauliflower, etc.)
- leafy vegetables, salads
- tomatoes, peppers, cucumber
- carrots etc.
Canned fruit (usually with added sugar)

Tab .: Overview of suitable and unsuitable carbohydrate sources for athletes (Konopka, 2006; Friedrich, 2008 & Weineck, 2010)

In addition to the recommendation to primarily consume foods with a low glycemic index, there are also specific recommendations for carbohydrate consumption directly after exercise (see post-workout nutrition).

Proteins

For adult recreational or amateur athleteswho are physically active 4 - 5 times a week for about 30 minutes at medium intensity, is a daily protein intake of 0.8 g / kg and 1.0 g / kg, respectively Body weight sufficient. The latter amount aims to meet the needs of 98% of the population and includes a safety margin.

Proteins serve (in adults) primarily to maintain body structures (maintenance requirement).

  • Renewal of body proteins that are worn out every day (cell peeling etc.)
  • Build-up and breakdown of long-lived and short-lived structural and functional proteins (enzymes, hormones, etc.)

Competitive and high-performance athletes In contrast to recreational and amateur athletes, they have an increased need for proteins due to their extreme physical stress. For Endurance and strength athletes becomes a feed of 1.2 to 1.7 g / kg Body weight recommended (endurance: 1.2-1.4 g / kg / strength: 1.2-1.7 g / kg), as your so-called Power requirement goes beyond the maintenance needs of non-athletes. This is expressed, for example, by:

  • an increased need for regeneration due to increased wear and tear of structural and contractile components of muscle fibers (actin, myosin)
  • structural changes in the body (especially during endurance exercise)
  • the loss of nitrogenous compounds through sweat
  • protein loss due to increased amino acid oxidation (branched-chain amino acids, alanine, glutamine)

In the case of intensive loads with depletion of the energy stores, the amino acids can be used to generate energy, v. a. if the diet did not provide enough carbohydrates. Glucose is then obtained from certain amino acids (alanine, glutamine) (Glucose-Alanine Cycle). In order to regenerate these amino acids, other amino acids (isoleucine and valine) are used. This ultimately leads to an unwanted side effect: muscle mass is reduced.

In strength athletes, there is an increased need for protein in the beginning due to the build-up of new muscle mass. With regular exercise, your protein utilization is likely to improve over time.

There is an increased protein requirement in sports ...

  • with the aim of increasing muscle mass
  • with an increased load duration
  • with weight classes, since weight reduction is usually achieved through reduced carbohydrate intake
  • which are associated with strong psychological stress and thus have increased activity of the glucose-alanine cycle (e.g. individual sports such as badminton, judo, karate, tennis)

A high biological value and a minimal content of undesirable accompanying substances Proteins (fats, cholesterol, purines) are beneficial for athletes. The protein sources selected should also be rich in essential amino acids.

Plant-based foods usually have a lower biological value than animal-based foods, because the individual plant-based foods do not contain the full spectrum of essential amino acids in comparison to animal-based foods. A one-sided food selection can lead to bottlenecks in the amino acids methionine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, cysteine, for example. However, through a clever combination of vegetable and animal foods, missing amino acids can be supplemented and the biological value of a meal can be enhanced. Suitable high protein foods are lean types of meat, sausage and cheese, milk and milk products as well as legumes, cereals or potatoes. As already mentioned, it is advantageous for the athlete to consume low-fat foods. Examples of the fat saving are shown in the table below.

Tab .: Options for saving fat with different protein sources

With an increased protein intake is also accompanied by an increased kidney strain from urea. It is a breakdown product that arises from the breakdown of protein. Therefore increases with a high protein intake the Fluid requirements.

Athletes can generally cover the recommended amounts of protein through food. For athletes under extreme stress, however, it can be difficult to absorb the necessary amounts of energy and protein (see protein supplements).

fat

Dietary fats, like carbohydrates, are Energy suppliers and are of particular importance in providing energy during long endurance exercises (see table). Fats are the most energetic nutrients and can contribute to excessive consumption the emergence of Favor obesity, however, they also have extremely important functions in the human body and some of them are essential (e.g. linoleic acid).

Route lengthconsumed KH [g]consumed fats [g]Ratio KH: F [%]

Tab .: Ratio of energy production from fats and carbohydrates with different endurance loads (Konopka, 2006)

Examples of important functions of fats are that they are am Structure of the cell membranes are involved and act as carriers of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K. Nevertheless, in some disciplines such as ski jumping or marathon running, body fat is considered unnecessary ballast.

Athletes should be on a need-based fat supply respect, think highly of. When it comes to fat, both excess and deficiency can lead to decreased performance. The recommendations say that about 20-30 % the daily amount of energy from fat should come from. It has been proven that there is no performance benefit in reducing fat intake below 20 percent of energy. In general, the lower the intake, the higher the quality of the fats. About a third each the ingested fats should be made up saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids consist. Particular attention should be paid to an adequate intake of omega-3 and omega-6Fatty acids because they have a positive effect on regeneration after intense and extensive sporting activities.

Appropriate sources for fat absorption are all vegetable oils, fatty fish (rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids), Nuts and seeds. High-fat animal foods and products made from them (cheese, butter, cream, lard, etc.) should be consumed to a lesser extent or their low-fat variants should be preferred. They usually contain a large proportion of saturated fatty acids and undesirable accompanying substances (purines, cholesterol). These can contribute to the development of hardening of the arteries, gout, etc. Hidden fats are mostly found in sausages and meats such as salami, Lyoner and pork neck steaks. Many types of cheese also contain a lot of fat, as do snacks and sweets (chocolate, chips, etc.).