How does ADHD work
state of research
Causes of ADHD
It is now accepted that a high percentage of ADHD is hereditary. The likelihood of children having ADHD, thoughaParent is affected is 20-30%. To haveboth If parents have pronounced ADHD, the probability that their biological children will develop ADHD is 80-90%.
There are many theories about the processes that go on in the brain of a person with ADHD that require further confirmation.
What is certain today is that ADHD is a disorder or a standard variant of the frontal lobe, which is responsible for regulating behavior, but also for making decisions, evaluating experiences and for the entire control of the organism. The frontal lobe controls the information processing of all the millions of stimuli that flow into us every second. It has to filter, sort, store, delete or forward these stimuli with the help of subordinate brain centers. This assumes that information processing and selection according to priorities take place in our brain. If these filters do not work adequately, a data crash or data short circuit occurs, and the brain cannot process the incoming stimuli sensibly.
In medical terms, new PET (positron emission tomography) examinations have clearly shown that the frontal sections of the brain in people with ADHD are less well supplied with blood. A lower nerve activity could also be demonstrated in certain brain regions. In addition, secondary regions of the brain are activated, which make it difficult to assign or process the incoming information precisely. Today it is assumed that the inhibitory functions of the frontal lobe are not sufficiently activated, so that the braking and inhibitory systems of the brain do not work as required (from which the excessive reactions and feelings of ADHD sufferers result).
Changes in size were also found in the frontal sections of the brain and in the brain nuclei. Changes were also found in the important brain hormones, the neurotransmitters, which essentially determine our feelings and well-being.
Hormones play a role in the development of ADHDSerotonin, that for impulse control, andNorepinephrine, that is responsible for attention and activity has a role.
The most important hormone in the development of ADHD isDopamine. This neurotransmitter controls activity, drive and motivation. Scientifically, it has been shown that in ADHD there are disorders of the dopamine receptor and also of the dopamine transporter gene, so that dopamine is not sufficiently present in certain areas of the brain or is broken down too quickly.
It is certain that dopamine is broken down too quickly in the synaptic cleft, its site of action. This also explains the therapeutic effect of methylphenidate (e.g. Ritalin), which by blocking the transport components causes an increase in the dopamine level and thus ensures an equalization of the values.
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