What are the daily essential nutrients

Essential nutrients

nutrient engl. (nutrient) recommended
daily amount
 
Unit chemical formula CAS-No. 
Biotinbiotin30μgC.10H16N2O3S.58-85-5
Calciumcalcium1000mgApprox2+14127-61-8
Kilocalorieskilocalories1800kcal--
Cholinecholine425mg[(CH3)3N-CH2-CH2OH]+62-49-7
chromechromium35mgCr3+16065-83-1
coppercopper900μgCu2+15158-11-9
Fat (total)fat (total)65Ge.g. C57H110O6555-43-1
Fiberfiber25G--
fluoridefluoride3mgF.-16984-48-8
Folic acidfolate400μgC.19H19N7O659-30-3
Iodideiodide150μgI.-20461-54-5
ironiron18mgFe3+20074-52-6
magnesiummagnesium400mgMg2+22537-22-0
manganesemanganese2.0mgMn2+16397-91-4
molybdenummolybdenum45μgMon6+16065-87-5
Niacin (Vit. B3)niacin (vit. B3)16mgC.6H5NO259-67-6
ω-3 fatty acidsω-3 fatty acids2.5Ge.g. C18H30O2463-40-1
Pantothenic acidpantothenic acid5mgC.9H17NO579-83-4
phosphatephosphates700mgPO43-14265-44-2
potassiumpotassium3.5GK+24203-36-9
proteinprotein50G--
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)riboflavin (vit. B2)1.3mgC.17H20N4O683-88-5
seleniumselenium55μgSe2-22541-48-6
sodiumsodium1500mgN / A+17341-25-2
Thiamine (Vit. B1)thiamine (vit. B1)1.2mgC.12H17ClN4OS59-43-8
Vitamin AVitamin A900μg RAEC.20H30O68-26-8
vitamin B12vitamin B122.4μgC.63H88CoN14O14P68-19-9
vitamin B6vitamin B61.7mge.g. C8H9NO366-72-8
vitamin Cvitamin C75mgC.6H8O650-81-7
Vitamin DVitamin D10μgD.3: C27H44O67-97-0
Vitamin E.vitamin E15mg aEqC.29H50O210191-41-0
Vitamin Kvitamin K90μgK1: C31H46O284-80-0
zinczinc11mgZn2+23713-49-7

Remarks

The information on the "recommended daily amount" was taken from the book by Mateljan quoted below. They essentially agree with the information DV (daily volume) or DRI (dietary reference intake) of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration). They apply to adults, with no differentiation according to age and gender.

1 kcal = 4.1868 kJ, 1800 kcal = 7540 kJ
RAE: retinol activity equivalents
Vitamin D, IU: 1 µg = 40 IU

Proteins

Proteins are biopolymers (polycondensates) of amino acids. There are both vegetable protein and animal protein, with animal protein because of its higher content essential amino acids is nutritionally more valuable. A particularly high one biological value have the proteins of eggs and milk. Grain proteins indicate a deficit Lysine on.

Demand for essential and semi-essential amino acids in humans

amino acidRequirement, mg / kg BM *Requirement, mg **
Histidine00
Isoleucine10750
Leucine141050
Lysine12900
Methionine + Cysteine13975
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine141050
Threonine7525
Tryptophan4300
Valine10750
Arginine--

* Requirement in mg per kg of body mass in adults
Histidine is essential in infants (28 mg / kg BM)
semi-essential amino acids (italic) are: cysteine, tyrosine, arginine
** Requirement in mg for adults (body mass 75 kg)

(after Schenck / Kolb, see lit.)

Structural formulas

13 vitamins

One distinguishes fat-soluble Vitamins (A, D, E, K) and water soluble Vitamins (B complex, C). In detail (see also the table above and the links):

  1. Vitamin A (retinol); Provitamin A = β-carotene
  2. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
  3. Vitamin D (vitamin D3) (Calciferol)
  4. Vitamin E (tocopherol)
  5. Vitamin K (vitamin K1) (Phylloquinone)
  6. vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
  7. vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
  8. vitamin B3 (Niacin)
  9. vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
  10. vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) or pyridoxal
  11. vitamin B9 (Folic acid)
  12. vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
  13. Vitamin H (biotin)

Other health-promoting substances

Polyphenols such as resveratrol (antioxidants).
Free radicals (i.e. reactive substances with unpaired electrons) can damage cells and accelerate aging, on the other hand activate the immune system.

literature

Literature used: George Mateljan, The World's Healthiest Foods, 2nd Edition, GMF Publishing, 2015, ISBN 978-0-976-91851-6.
http://www.whfoods.org/

Martin Schenck, Erich Kolb, Outline of Physiological Chemistry, 8th edition, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, 1990.

- BKi